Summary. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection is common. HIV co-infection results in a higher rate of histologic progression and shorter interval to HCV-related cirrhosis. Successful treatment of HCV with interferon-based therapy reduces the morbidity and mortality of patients. Significant factors may limit the availability of treatment in co-infected patients. The rate of treatment of HCV and limiting factors to treatment in a co-infected population in an urban setting were determined. A retrospective review of co-infected patients was conducted at our liver and gastrointestinal (GI) clinics for treatment of HCV from July 2001 to June 2002. Treatment of HCV and reasons for nontreatment were recorded. A total of 104 HCV/HIV co-infected patients were identified. Seventy-two per cent were males. Mean age was 47.2 years (32–72). Seventy-four of the 82 (90%) with identifiable risk factors for HCV infection had a history of intravenous drug use (IVDU). Twenty per cent (21/104) of the total underwent a liver biopsy. Sixty-seven per cent who had a liver biopsy were treated. Overall, sixteen patients were treated. Eighty-eight (85%) patients were not treated for the following reasons: 13 refused treatment, and 75 were ineligible. Of the ineligible patients, 40% were noncompliant with visits, 15% were active substance abusers, 13% had decompensated cirrhosis, 8% had significant active psychiatric conditions and 24% had significant co-morbid disease. A majority of patients co-infected with HCV/HIV had a IVDU history. Most co-infected patients were not eligible for HCV treatment. A majority of noncandidates had potentially modifiable psychosocial factors leading to nontreatment.