Summary. The efficacy of lamivudine re-treatment in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients who relapse after HBeAg seroconversion with lamivudine has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of lamivudine re-treatment in relapsed patients. Among 192 patients who had achieved HBeAg seroconversion with lamivudine at a dose of 100 mg/day, 121 patients discontinued lamivudine. Relapse occurred in 49 patients (40.5%). Thirty-three relapsed patients received lamivudine re-treatment for at least 6 months. The mean duration of lamivudine re-treatment was 16 months and the follow-up period was 8.9 months. HBeAg seroconversion was achieved in 23 patients (69.7%). The cumulative HBeAg seroconversion rates at 5, 9, and 12 months were 60, 64, and 67%, respectively. The mean time to HBeAg seroconversion in lamivudine re-treatment was shorter than that in the initial therapy (4.7 months vs. 9.7 months). Viral breakthrough occurred in six (18.2%) patients. All patients with viral breakthrough were accompanied by elevation of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. Among 15 patients who discontinued lamivudine re-treatment after HBeAg seroconversion, relapse occurred in six patients (40%). All relapses occurred within 9 months after the discontinuation of lamivudine re-treatment. In conclusion, lamivudine re-treatment in relapsed patients after initial lamivudine therapy had a higher response rate and shorter duration to HBeAg seroconversion than during the initial therapy. However, HBeAg seroconversion induced by lamivudine re-treatment was not durable.