Summary. The objective of the present study was to determine mortality because of end-stage liver disease (ESLD) in a nationwide population of HIV-infected patients, 7 years following the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). All departments of internal medicine and infectious diseases from the GERMIVIC Study Group prospectively recorded all deaths in HIV-infected patients during 2003. Fifty-nine departments, following a total of 20 940 HIV-infected patients, participated in the study. Results were compared with those of previous surveys conducted using similar methodology in 1995, 1997 and 2001. Among 215 deaths observed during 2003, 101 (46.9%) were related to AIDS, 27 (12.6%) to ESLD and 87 (40.5%) to other causes. Mortality because of ESLD represented 23.7% of non-AIDS-related deaths. Patients dying from ESLD had chronic hepatitis because of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in 92.6% of cases and moderate (30–60 g) or high (>60 g) alcohol consumption (43.5% and 26.0%, respectively). In this population, deaths because of ESLD were 1.5% in 1995, 6.6% in 1997, 14.3% in 2001 and 12.6% in 2003. The prevalence of hepatocellular carcinoma as a cause of death remained high in 2003 but stable when compared with 2001 (25%vs 14.8%). Treatment of hepatitis C in patients who died from ESLD was more frequent in 2003 (44.4%) than in 2001 (26.3%). Seven years after the introduction of HAART, ESLD associated with HCV infections is a leading cause of mortality in HIV-infected patients, which did not increase between the years 2001 and 2003.