• 1
    Lee WM. Hepatitis B virus infection. N Engl J Med 1997; 337: 17331745.
  • 2
    Ganem D, Prince AM. Hepatitis B virus infection – natural history and clinical consequences. N Engl J Med 2004; 350: 11181129.
  • 3
    Wolf DC. Screening for hepatocellular carcinoma: is it cost-effective? Liver Transpl 2003; 9: 682683.
  • 4
    CDC U.S. Disease Burden Data 1980-2004. Disease Burden from Viral Hepatitis A, B, and C in the United States. 2004, Available at: Atlanta, GA: CDC
  • 5
    Asian Liver Center. Statistics. Available at: Stanford, CA: Stanford University
  • 6
    Lavanchy D. Hepatitis B virus epidemiology, disease burden, treatment, and current and emerging prevention and control measures. J Viral Hepat 2004; 11: 97107.
  • 7
    CDC. Hepatitis B Fact Sheet. Available at: (accessed on 25 October, 2005). Atlanta, GA: CDC
  • 8
    Hann HWL, Hann RS, Stahlhut MW, Maddrey WC. Hepatitis B virus infection in 6130 unvaccinated Korean Americans surveyed between 1988 and 1990. Am J Gastroenterol 2007; 102: 16.
    Direct Link:
  • 9
    Hann HWL, Hann RS, Maddrey WC. Intrafamilial hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Asian immigrant families. Hepatology 1996; 24: 280A (Abstract 616).
  • 10
    Moradpour D, Wands JR. Hepatic Oncogenesis. In: ZakimD, BoyerTD, eds. Hepatology: A Textbook of Liver Diseases. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders, 1996: 14901552.
  • 11
    Hann HWL. Hepatitis B. In: ZaneNWS, TakeuchiD, YoungKNJ eds. Confronting Critical Health Issues of Asian and Pacific Islander Americans. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1994: 149173.
  • 12
    Nguyen MH, Keeffe EB. Chronic hepatitis B and hepatitis C in Asian Americans. Rev Gastroenterol Disord 2003; 3: 125134.
  • 13
    Pojoga C, Dumitrascu DL, Pascu O, Grigorescu M, Radu C, Damian D. Impaired health-related quality of life in Romanian patients with chronic viral hepatitis before antiviral therapy. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2004; 16: 2731.
  • 14
    Wu GC, Zhou WP, Zhao YR et al. Long-term health-related quality of life in chronic hepatitis B patients. Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi 2003; 11: 275277 (Mandarin).
  • 15
    Kunkle EJS, Kim JS, Hann HWL et al. Depression in Korean immigrants with hepatitis B and related liver diseases. Psychosomatics 2000; 41: 472480.
  • 16
    Likert R. A technique for the measurement of attitudes. Arch. Psychol. 1932; 140: 55.
  • 17
    Cheung J, Lee TK, Teh CZ, Wang CY, Kwan WC, Yoshida EM. Cross-sectional study of hepatitis B awareness among Chinese and Southeast Asian Canadians in the Vancouver-Richmond community. Can J Gastroenterol 2005; 19: 245249.
  • 18
    Tan NC, Cheah SL, Teo EK. A qualitative study of health-seeking behavior of hepatitis B carriers. Singapore Med J 2005; 46: 610.