• adefovir dipivoxil;
  • Fanconi syndrome;
  • hepatitis B virus;
  • lamivudine

Summary.  Combination therapy with adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) and lamivudine (LAM) is recommended for patients infected with LAM-refractory hepatitis B virus (HBV). However, the effects of such therapy on renal function and serum phosphorus levels have not been fully evaluated. Combination therapy with ADV and LAM was given to 37 patients infected with LAM-refractory HBV, including 17 with hepatic cirrhosis. Serum HBV DNA levels decreased to below 2.6 log10 copies/mL in 23 (62%) of 37 patients at 12 months, 25 (78%) of 32 patients at 24 months, and 16 (84%) of 19 patients at 36 months. Except for one cirrhotic patient, serum alanine aminotransferase levels were below 50 IU/L in all patients during combination therapy. Serum creatinine levels increased in 14 (38%) of 37 patients, and serum phosphate levels decreased to below 2.5 mg/mL in 6 (16%) of 37 patients during combination therapy. Patients who received combination therapy for 36 months or longer had a significantly incidence of elevated serum creatinine levels. Fanconi syndrome occurred in a 57-year-old woman with cirrhosis after ADV was added to LAM. Combination therapy with ADV and LAM can maintain biochemical remission in patients with LAM-refractory HBV. However, the dosing interval of ADV should be adjusted according to renal function and serum phosphate levels in patients receiving long-term treatment.