• controlled attenuation parameter (CAP);
  • Fibroscan®;
  • hepatitis C;
  • liver steatosis;
  • vibration-controlled transient elastography (VCTE)

Summary.  A novel controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) has been developed for Fibroscan® to assess liver steatosis, simultaneously with liver stiffness measurement (LSM). We assessed CAP diagnostic accuracy in a large cohort of patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) virus. A total of 615 patients with CHC, who underwent both Fibroscan® and liver biopsy, were analysed. Fibrosis was graded using METAVIR score. Steatosis was categorized by visual assessment as S0: steatosis in <10% of hepatocytes, S1: 11–33%, S2: 34–66% and S3: 67–100%. Performances of CAP and liver stiffness were determined using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and cross-validated using the bootstrap method. The Obuchowski measure was used to assess overall accuracy of CAP and to differentiate between steatosis grades. In multivariate analysis, CAP was related to steatosis (< 10−15) independently of fibrosis stage (which was related to LSM). The areas under ROC curves using CAP to detect steatosis were 0.80 (95% CI, 0.75–0.84) for S ≥ S1, 0.86 (0.81–0.92) for S ≥ S2 and 0.88 (0.73–1) S = S3. CAP exhibited a good ability to differentiate steatosis grades (Obuchowski measure = 0.92). Performance of LSM for fibrosis assessment confirmed results from previous studies. CAP is a novel tool to assess the degree of steatosis and both fibrosis and steatosis can be evaluated noninvasively during the same procedure using Fibroscan®, in patients with CHC.