1. The distribution and density of Eurasian badgers Meles meles in Luxembourg was estimated by gathering information about the location of badger setts with a questionnaire survey, by visiting 708 setts in order to classify them as ‘main setts’ or ‘outliers’, and by estimating social group size by directly counting emerging badgers.
2. Badgers were found to be widely distributed in Luxembourg, with a minimum main sett density of 0.17 setts/km2. Setts were sited preferentially in forest habitat. The mean minimum group size was 4.6 badgers.
3. The Luxembourg badger population was conservatively estimated to contain at least 2010 adult and young badgers (95% CI 1674–2347) in spring 2002, equivalent to a density of 0.78 adult and young badgers/km2 (95% CI 0.65–0.91). This is moderate compared to most of continental Europe.