The mating system of the brown bear Ursus arctos

Authors

  • Sam M. J. G. STEYAERT,

    1. Institute of Wildlife Biology and Game Management, Department of Integrative Biology and Biodiversity Research, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Gregor-Mendel-Street 33, 1180 Vienna, Austria, and Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences Pb. 5003 NO-1432 Ås, Norway. E-mail: sam.steyaert@umb.no
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    • S. M. J. G. Steyaert and A. Endrestøl contributed equally to this paper.

  • Anders ENDRESTØL,

    1. Department of Animal and Aquacultural Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences Pb. 5003 NO-1432 Ås, Norway, and Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Gaustadalléen 21 NO-0349 Oslo, Norway. E-mail: anders.endrestol@nina.no
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    • S. M. J. G. Steyaert and A. Endrestøl contributed equally to this paper.

  • Klaus HACKLÄNDER,

    1. Institute of Wildlife Biology and Game Management, Department of Integrative Biology and Biodiversity Research, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Gregor-Mendel-Street 33, 1180 Vienna, Austria. E-mail: klaus.hacklaender@boku.ac.at
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  • Jon E SWENSON,

    1. Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences Pb. 5003 NO-1432 Ås, Norway, and Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, NO-7485 Trondheim, Norway. E-mail: jon.swenson@umb.no
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  • Andreas ZEDROSSER

    1. Institute of Wildlife Biology and Game Management, Department of Integrative Biology and Biodiversity Research, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Gregor-Mendel-Street 33, 1180 Vienna, Austria, and Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences Pb. 5003 NO-1432 Ås, Norway. E-mail: andreas.zedrosser@umb.no
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ABSTRACT

  • 1Research on mating systems and reproductive strategies is valuable for providing ethological knowledge, important for the management and conservation of a species, and in a broader sense, important for biodiversity conservation.
  • 2We reviewed the literature to document the mating system of the brown bear Ursus arctos. We determined that many aspects of the reproduction of the brown bear remain unclear, including (i) biological aspects, such as hormone and oestrous cycling, sperm competition, mate choice, sexually selected infanticide, etc. and (ii) human impacts on the mating system, occurring when humans alter population size and structure, through, for example, hunting or habitat degradation.
  • 3We considered three mating system classification frameworks from the literature (Emlen & Oring 1977, Clutton-Brock 1989, Shuster & Wade 2003) and applied various brown bear populations to them. We did this (i) to document the plasticity of the mating system of the brown bear, and (ii) to find commonalities among the reported mating system classifications in order to provide a general and common classification of the brown bear's mating system.
  • 4The mating system of the brown bear can, in general, be classed as ‘polygamous’. Subclassifications can nevertheless be valuable on smaller spatial scales.
  • 5Within the polygamous mating system of the brown bear, biological aspects and human impacts can influence reproductive strategies at the individual and population level. Mating system classification frameworks often lack a common terminology, which contributes to the variety of published classifications of the mating system of the brown bear.

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