Abstract. The relationship between female mosquito body size and survival rate was studied in field populations of Anopheles arabiensis in the Awash valley, central Ethiopia. Body size was quantified by measuring the wing-length. Highly significant correlations were found between size, parousness and insemination. It was concluded that larger An.arabiensis females have a higher probability of survival, being inseminated and producing more egg batches than smaller adults. Implications for vectorial capacity and vector competence of mosquitoes are discussed.