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Population structure and geographical subdivision of the Leishmania major vector Phlebotomus papatasi as revealed by microsatellite variation

Authors

  • O. HAMARSHEH,

    Corresponding author
    1. 1 Department of Biological Sciences, Al-Quds University, Jerusalem, Palestine, 2Department of Parasitology, Institut für Mikrobiologie und Hygiene, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 3Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research, Medical Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran, 4Leishmaniasis Research Laboratory, Al-Quds University, Jerusalem, Israel, 5Leishmania Research Unit, Jericho, Palestine, 6Department of Primary Health Care, Ministry of Health, Ramallah, Palestine, 7Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Aleppo, Aleppo, Syria, 8Department of Microbiology, B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal, 9Laboratoire d’Ecologie Animale Terrestre, Faculté des Sciences Semlalia, Marrakech, Morocco, 10Laboratoire de Génétique, Faculté des Sciences Biologiques, Université des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene (USTHB), Algiers, Algeria, 11National Institute of Malaria Research (ICMR), Delhi, India, 12Department of Parasitology, Kochi Medical School, Kochi University, Kochi, Japan, 13Institute Pasteur Tunis, Tunis, Tunisia and 14Tropical Medicine Research Institute, National Centre for Research, Khartoum, Sudan
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  • 1 W. PRESBER,

    1. 1 Department of Biological Sciences, Al-Quds University, Jerusalem, Palestine, 2Department of Parasitology, Institut für Mikrobiologie und Hygiene, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 3Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research, Medical Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran, 4Leishmaniasis Research Laboratory, Al-Quds University, Jerusalem, Israel, 5Leishmania Research Unit, Jericho, Palestine, 6Department of Primary Health Care, Ministry of Health, Ramallah, Palestine, 7Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Aleppo, Aleppo, Syria, 8Department of Microbiology, B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal, 9Laboratoire d’Ecologie Animale Terrestre, Faculté des Sciences Semlalia, Marrakech, Morocco, 10Laboratoire de Génétique, Faculté des Sciences Biologiques, Université des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene (USTHB), Algiers, Algeria, 11National Institute of Malaria Research (ICMR), Delhi, India, 12Department of Parasitology, Kochi Medical School, Kochi University, Kochi, Japan, 13Institute Pasteur Tunis, Tunis, Tunisia and 14Tropical Medicine Research Institute, National Centre for Research, Khartoum, Sudan
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  • 2 M.-R. YAGHOOBI-ERSHADI,

    1. 1 Department of Biological Sciences, Al-Quds University, Jerusalem, Palestine, 2Department of Parasitology, Institut für Mikrobiologie und Hygiene, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 3Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research, Medical Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran, 4Leishmaniasis Research Laboratory, Al-Quds University, Jerusalem, Israel, 5Leishmania Research Unit, Jericho, Palestine, 6Department of Primary Health Care, Ministry of Health, Ramallah, Palestine, 7Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Aleppo, Aleppo, Syria, 8Department of Microbiology, B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal, 9Laboratoire d’Ecologie Animale Terrestre, Faculté des Sciences Semlalia, Marrakech, Morocco, 10Laboratoire de Génétique, Faculté des Sciences Biologiques, Université des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene (USTHB), Algiers, Algeria, 11National Institute of Malaria Research (ICMR), Delhi, India, 12Department of Parasitology, Kochi Medical School, Kochi University, Kochi, Japan, 13Institute Pasteur Tunis, Tunis, Tunisia and 14Tropical Medicine Research Institute, National Centre for Research, Khartoum, Sudan
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  • 3 A. AMRO,

    1. 1 Department of Biological Sciences, Al-Quds University, Jerusalem, Palestine, 2Department of Parasitology, Institut für Mikrobiologie und Hygiene, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 3Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research, Medical Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran, 4Leishmaniasis Research Laboratory, Al-Quds University, Jerusalem, Israel, 5Leishmania Research Unit, Jericho, Palestine, 6Department of Primary Health Care, Ministry of Health, Ramallah, Palestine, 7Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Aleppo, Aleppo, Syria, 8Department of Microbiology, B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal, 9Laboratoire d’Ecologie Animale Terrestre, Faculté des Sciences Semlalia, Marrakech, Morocco, 10Laboratoire de Génétique, Faculté des Sciences Biologiques, Université des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene (USTHB), Algiers, Algeria, 11National Institute of Malaria Research (ICMR), Delhi, India, 12Department of Parasitology, Kochi Medical School, Kochi University, Kochi, Japan, 13Institute Pasteur Tunis, Tunis, Tunisia and 14Tropical Medicine Research Institute, National Centre for Research, Khartoum, Sudan
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  • 2,4 A. AL-JAWABREH,

    1. 1 Department of Biological Sciences, Al-Quds University, Jerusalem, Palestine, 2Department of Parasitology, Institut für Mikrobiologie und Hygiene, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 3Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research, Medical Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran, 4Leishmaniasis Research Laboratory, Al-Quds University, Jerusalem, Israel, 5Leishmania Research Unit, Jericho, Palestine, 6Department of Primary Health Care, Ministry of Health, Ramallah, Palestine, 7Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Aleppo, Aleppo, Syria, 8Department of Microbiology, B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal, 9Laboratoire d’Ecologie Animale Terrestre, Faculté des Sciences Semlalia, Marrakech, Morocco, 10Laboratoire de Génétique, Faculté des Sciences Biologiques, Université des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene (USTHB), Algiers, Algeria, 11National Institute of Malaria Research (ICMR), Delhi, India, 12Department of Parasitology, Kochi Medical School, Kochi University, Kochi, Japan, 13Institute Pasteur Tunis, Tunis, Tunisia and 14Tropical Medicine Research Institute, National Centre for Research, Khartoum, Sudan
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  • 5 S. SAWALHA,

    1. 1 Department of Biological Sciences, Al-Quds University, Jerusalem, Palestine, 2Department of Parasitology, Institut für Mikrobiologie und Hygiene, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 3Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research, Medical Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran, 4Leishmaniasis Research Laboratory, Al-Quds University, Jerusalem, Israel, 5Leishmania Research Unit, Jericho, Palestine, 6Department of Primary Health Care, Ministry of Health, Ramallah, Palestine, 7Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Aleppo, Aleppo, Syria, 8Department of Microbiology, B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal, 9Laboratoire d’Ecologie Animale Terrestre, Faculté des Sciences Semlalia, Marrakech, Morocco, 10Laboratoire de Génétique, Faculté des Sciences Biologiques, Université des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene (USTHB), Algiers, Algeria, 11National Institute of Malaria Research (ICMR), Delhi, India, 12Department of Parasitology, Kochi Medical School, Kochi University, Kochi, Japan, 13Institute Pasteur Tunis, Tunis, Tunisia and 14Tropical Medicine Research Institute, National Centre for Research, Khartoum, Sudan
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  • 6 A. AL-LAHEM,

    1. 1 Department of Biological Sciences, Al-Quds University, Jerusalem, Palestine, 2Department of Parasitology, Institut für Mikrobiologie und Hygiene, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 3Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research, Medical Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran, 4Leishmaniasis Research Laboratory, Al-Quds University, Jerusalem, Israel, 5Leishmania Research Unit, Jericho, Palestine, 6Department of Primary Health Care, Ministry of Health, Ramallah, Palestine, 7Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Aleppo, Aleppo, Syria, 8Department of Microbiology, B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal, 9Laboratoire d’Ecologie Animale Terrestre, Faculté des Sciences Semlalia, Marrakech, Morocco, 10Laboratoire de Génétique, Faculté des Sciences Biologiques, Université des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene (USTHB), Algiers, Algeria, 11National Institute of Malaria Research (ICMR), Delhi, India, 12Department of Parasitology, Kochi Medical School, Kochi University, Kochi, Japan, 13Institute Pasteur Tunis, Tunis, Tunisia and 14Tropical Medicine Research Institute, National Centre for Research, Khartoum, Sudan
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  • 7 M. L. DAS,

    1. 1 Department of Biological Sciences, Al-Quds University, Jerusalem, Palestine, 2Department of Parasitology, Institut für Mikrobiologie und Hygiene, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 3Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research, Medical Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran, 4Leishmaniasis Research Laboratory, Al-Quds University, Jerusalem, Israel, 5Leishmania Research Unit, Jericho, Palestine, 6Department of Primary Health Care, Ministry of Health, Ramallah, Palestine, 7Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Aleppo, Aleppo, Syria, 8Department of Microbiology, B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal, 9Laboratoire d’Ecologie Animale Terrestre, Faculté des Sciences Semlalia, Marrakech, Morocco, 10Laboratoire de Génétique, Faculté des Sciences Biologiques, Université des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene (USTHB), Algiers, Algeria, 11National Institute of Malaria Research (ICMR), Delhi, India, 12Department of Parasitology, Kochi Medical School, Kochi University, Kochi, Japan, 13Institute Pasteur Tunis, Tunis, Tunisia and 14Tropical Medicine Research Institute, National Centre for Research, Khartoum, Sudan
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  • 8 S. GUERNAOUI,

    1. 1 Department of Biological Sciences, Al-Quds University, Jerusalem, Palestine, 2Department of Parasitology, Institut für Mikrobiologie und Hygiene, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 3Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research, Medical Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran, 4Leishmaniasis Research Laboratory, Al-Quds University, Jerusalem, Israel, 5Leishmania Research Unit, Jericho, Palestine, 6Department of Primary Health Care, Ministry of Health, Ramallah, Palestine, 7Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Aleppo, Aleppo, Syria, 8Department of Microbiology, B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal, 9Laboratoire d’Ecologie Animale Terrestre, Faculté des Sciences Semlalia, Marrakech, Morocco, 10Laboratoire de Génétique, Faculté des Sciences Biologiques, Université des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene (USTHB), Algiers, Algeria, 11National Institute of Malaria Research (ICMR), Delhi, India, 12Department of Parasitology, Kochi Medical School, Kochi University, Kochi, Japan, 13Institute Pasteur Tunis, Tunis, Tunisia and 14Tropical Medicine Research Institute, National Centre for Research, Khartoum, Sudan
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  • 9 N. SERIDI,

    1. 1 Department of Biological Sciences, Al-Quds University, Jerusalem, Palestine, 2Department of Parasitology, Institut für Mikrobiologie und Hygiene, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 3Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research, Medical Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran, 4Leishmaniasis Research Laboratory, Al-Quds University, Jerusalem, Israel, 5Leishmania Research Unit, Jericho, Palestine, 6Department of Primary Health Care, Ministry of Health, Ramallah, Palestine, 7Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Aleppo, Aleppo, Syria, 8Department of Microbiology, B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal, 9Laboratoire d’Ecologie Animale Terrestre, Faculté des Sciences Semlalia, Marrakech, Morocco, 10Laboratoire de Génétique, Faculté des Sciences Biologiques, Université des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene (USTHB), Algiers, Algeria, 11National Institute of Malaria Research (ICMR), Delhi, India, 12Department of Parasitology, Kochi Medical School, Kochi University, Kochi, Japan, 13Institute Pasteur Tunis, Tunis, Tunisia and 14Tropical Medicine Research Institute, National Centre for Research, Khartoum, Sudan
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  • 10 R. C. DHIMAN,

    1. 1 Department of Biological Sciences, Al-Quds University, Jerusalem, Palestine, 2Department of Parasitology, Institut für Mikrobiologie und Hygiene, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 3Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research, Medical Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran, 4Leishmaniasis Research Laboratory, Al-Quds University, Jerusalem, Israel, 5Leishmania Research Unit, Jericho, Palestine, 6Department of Primary Health Care, Ministry of Health, Ramallah, Palestine, 7Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Aleppo, Aleppo, Syria, 8Department of Microbiology, B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal, 9Laboratoire d’Ecologie Animale Terrestre, Faculté des Sciences Semlalia, Marrakech, Morocco, 10Laboratoire de Génétique, Faculté des Sciences Biologiques, Université des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene (USTHB), Algiers, Algeria, 11National Institute of Malaria Research (ICMR), Delhi, India, 12Department of Parasitology, Kochi Medical School, Kochi University, Kochi, Japan, 13Institute Pasteur Tunis, Tunis, Tunisia and 14Tropical Medicine Research Institute, National Centre for Research, Khartoum, Sudan
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  • 11 Y. HASHIGUCHI,

    1. 1 Department of Biological Sciences, Al-Quds University, Jerusalem, Palestine, 2Department of Parasitology, Institut für Mikrobiologie und Hygiene, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 3Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research, Medical Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran, 4Leishmaniasis Research Laboratory, Al-Quds University, Jerusalem, Israel, 5Leishmania Research Unit, Jericho, Palestine, 6Department of Primary Health Care, Ministry of Health, Ramallah, Palestine, 7Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Aleppo, Aleppo, Syria, 8Department of Microbiology, B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal, 9Laboratoire d’Ecologie Animale Terrestre, Faculté des Sciences Semlalia, Marrakech, Morocco, 10Laboratoire de Génétique, Faculté des Sciences Biologiques, Université des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene (USTHB), Algiers, Algeria, 11National Institute of Malaria Research (ICMR), Delhi, India, 12Department of Parasitology, Kochi Medical School, Kochi University, Kochi, Japan, 13Institute Pasteur Tunis, Tunis, Tunisia and 14Tropical Medicine Research Institute, National Centre for Research, Khartoum, Sudan
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  • 12 J. GHRAB,

    1. 1 Department of Biological Sciences, Al-Quds University, Jerusalem, Palestine, 2Department of Parasitology, Institut für Mikrobiologie und Hygiene, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 3Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research, Medical Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran, 4Leishmaniasis Research Laboratory, Al-Quds University, Jerusalem, Israel, 5Leishmania Research Unit, Jericho, Palestine, 6Department of Primary Health Care, Ministry of Health, Ramallah, Palestine, 7Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Aleppo, Aleppo, Syria, 8Department of Microbiology, B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal, 9Laboratoire d’Ecologie Animale Terrestre, Faculté des Sciences Semlalia, Marrakech, Morocco, 10Laboratoire de Génétique, Faculté des Sciences Biologiques, Université des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene (USTHB), Algiers, Algeria, 11National Institute of Malaria Research (ICMR), Delhi, India, 12Department of Parasitology, Kochi Medical School, Kochi University, Kochi, Japan, 13Institute Pasteur Tunis, Tunis, Tunisia and 14Tropical Medicine Research Institute, National Centre for Research, Khartoum, Sudan
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  • 13 M. HASSAN,

    1. 1 Department of Biological Sciences, Al-Quds University, Jerusalem, Palestine, 2Department of Parasitology, Institut für Mikrobiologie und Hygiene, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 3Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research, Medical Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran, 4Leishmaniasis Research Laboratory, Al-Quds University, Jerusalem, Israel, 5Leishmania Research Unit, Jericho, Palestine, 6Department of Primary Health Care, Ministry of Health, Ramallah, Palestine, 7Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Aleppo, Aleppo, Syria, 8Department of Microbiology, B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal, 9Laboratoire d’Ecologie Animale Terrestre, Faculté des Sciences Semlalia, Marrakech, Morocco, 10Laboratoire de Génétique, Faculté des Sciences Biologiques, Université des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene (USTHB), Algiers, Algeria, 11National Institute of Malaria Research (ICMR), Delhi, India, 12Department of Parasitology, Kochi Medical School, Kochi University, Kochi, Japan, 13Institute Pasteur Tunis, Tunis, Tunisia and 14Tropical Medicine Research Institute, National Centre for Research, Khartoum, Sudan
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  • and 14 G. SCHÖNIAN 2

    1. 1 Department of Biological Sciences, Al-Quds University, Jerusalem, Palestine, 2Department of Parasitology, Institut für Mikrobiologie und Hygiene, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 3Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research, Medical Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran, 4Leishmaniasis Research Laboratory, Al-Quds University, Jerusalem, Israel, 5Leishmania Research Unit, Jericho, Palestine, 6Department of Primary Health Care, Ministry of Health, Ramallah, Palestine, 7Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Aleppo, Aleppo, Syria, 8Department of Microbiology, B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal, 9Laboratoire d’Ecologie Animale Terrestre, Faculté des Sciences Semlalia, Marrakech, Morocco, 10Laboratoire de Génétique, Faculté des Sciences Biologiques, Université des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene (USTHB), Algiers, Algeria, 11National Institute of Malaria Research (ICMR), Delhi, India, 12Department of Parasitology, Kochi Medical School, Kochi University, Kochi, Japan, 13Institute Pasteur Tunis, Tunis, Tunisia and 14Tropical Medicine Research Institute, National Centre for Research, Khartoum, Sudan
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Dr Omar Hamarsheh, Department of Biological Sciences, Al-Quds University, PO Box 51000, Jerusalem, Palestine. Tel.: + 972 5 9919 7097; Fax: + 972 2 279 6960; E-mail: ohamarsheh@gmail.com

Abstract

Abstract Multi-locus microsatellite typing (MLMT) has been employed to infer the population structure of Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) (Diptera: Psychodidae) sandflies and assign individuals to populations. Phlebotomus papatasi sandflies were collected from 35 sites in 15 countries. A total of 188 P. papatasi individuals were typed using five microsatellite loci, resulting in 113 different genotypes. Unique microsatellite signatures were observed for some of the populations analysed. Comparable results were obtained when the data were analysed with Bayesian model and distance-based methods. Bayesian statistic-based analyses split the dataset into two distinct genetic clusters, A and B, with further substructuring within each. Population A consisted of five subpopulations representing large numbers of alleles that were correlated with the geographical origins of the sandflies. Cluster B comprised individuals collected in the Middle East and the northern Mediterranean area. The subpopulations B1 and B2 did not, however, show any further correlation to geographical origin. The genetic differentiation between subpopulations was supported by F statistics showing statistically significant (Bonferroni-corrected P < 0.005) values of 0.221 between B2 and B1 and 0.816 between A5 and A4. Identification of the genetic structure of P. papatasi populations is important for understanding the patterns of dispersal of this species and to developing strategies for sandfly control.

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