During the 2003–2005 hunting seasons, a total of 120 Cervidae, including 39 red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus) and 81 fallow deer (Dama dama), were examined for subcutaneous myiasis. Animals were shot from January to June in southern Spain. Specific antibodies against Hypodermatinae (Diptera: Oestridae) were detected by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) using a crude larval extract (CLE) and a purified antigen [hypodermin C (HC)] obtained from first instars of Hypoderma lineatum (De Villers) (Diptera: Oestridae). Hypoderma actaeon Brauer was the only species detected in this study, which represents the first confirmation of this species in fallow deer from Spain. The overall prevalence of animals presenting subcutaneous larvae (14.2%) was considerably lower than the prevalences determined by iELISA with CLE (43.3%) and HC (40.0%). Red deer showed a higher prevalence of Hypoderma than fallow deer. The concordance between larval examination during the hunting season and iELISA using both antigens was low, whereas the concordance between the CLE and HC ELISAs was good. Larval antigens obtained from H. lineatum constitute a good tool for the diagnosis of H. actaeon in Cervidae, especially when the hunting season does not coincide with the maximum presence of larvae on the back.