Ultra-low-volume space sprays in mosquito control: a critical review
Article first published online: 11 JAN 2012
© 2012 The Author. Medical and Veterinary Entomology © 2012 The Royal Entomological Society
Medical and Veterinary Entomology
Volume 26, Issue 2, pages 121–130, June 2012
How to Cite
BONDS, J. A. S. (2012), Ultra-low-volume space sprays in mosquito control: a critical review. Medical and Veterinary Entomology, 26: 121–130. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2915.2011.00992.x
- Issue published online: 3 MAY 2012
- Article first published online: 11 JAN 2012
- Accepted 1 October 2011
- dengue fever;
- non target;
- ultra low volume;
- West Nile Virus
The availability of tools to control mosquito (Diptera:Culicidae) vectors that transmit disease is often limited by a variety of economic, environmental and social issues. In emergency conditions (epidemics, hurricanes, floods etc.), the application of pesticides as space sprays (either by ground or air) is the common method of choice in order to rapidly limit adult local mosquito production in the affected area. Space spray application now employs ultra-low-volume technology for the control of adult mosquitoes. However, the use of space sprays often raises social and environmental concerns by the general public that is served.
This review will define and illustrate modern ultra-low-volume technology for the purpose of application as a space spray, as well as describing the engineering controls that have been developed to minimize the environmental impact. The primary social concern is validity and efficacy of application. To address this point, the review will attempt to synthesize the global literature to address the effectiveness of space sprays to significantly impact mosquito vectors in relation to human disease.