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Physiology and development of the M and S molecular forms of Anopheles gambiae in Burkina Faso (West Africa)

Authors

  • K. MOULINE,

    Corresponding author
    1. MIVEGEC (UM1-UM2-CNRS 5290-IRD 224), Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Montpellier, France
    2. Institut de Recherche en Sciences de la Santé, Direction Régionale de l’Ouest, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso, Africa
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  • W. MAMAI,

    1. MIVEGEC (UM1-UM2-CNRS 5290-IRD 224), Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Montpellier, France
    2. Institut de Recherche en Sciences de la Santé, Direction Régionale de l’Ouest, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso, Africa
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  • P. AGNEW,

    1. MIVEGEC (UM1-UM2-CNRS 5290-IRD 224), Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Montpellier, France
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  • M. TCHONFIENET,

    1. MIVEGEC (UM1-UM2-CNRS 5290-IRD 224), Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Montpellier, France
    2. Institut de Recherche en Sciences de la Santé, Direction Régionale de l’Ouest, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso, Africa
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  • C. BRENGUES,

    1. MIVEGEC (UM1-UM2-CNRS 5290-IRD 224), Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Montpellier, France
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  • R. DABIRE,

    1. Institut de Recherche en Sciences de la Santé, Direction Régionale de l’Ouest, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso, Africa
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  • V. ROBERT,

    1. MIVEGEC (UM1-UM2-CNRS 5290-IRD 224), Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Montpellier, France
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  • F. SIMARD

    1. MIVEGEC (UM1-UM2-CNRS 5290-IRD 224), Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Montpellier, France
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Karine Mouline, Team BEES (Biology, Ecology and Evolution of Vector Systems), MIVEGEC, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), 01 BP 171, Bobo-Dioulasso 01, Burkina Faso, Africa. Tel.: +226 20 97 12 69; Fax: +226 20 97 09 42; E-mail: karine.mouline@ird.fr

Abstract

In West Africa, M and S molecular forms of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae) Giles, frequently occur together, although with different population bionomics. The S form typically breeds in rain-dependant water collections and is present during the rainy season only whereas the M form can thrive all year long in areas with permanent breeding opportunities. In the present study, we explored physiological and developmental trade-offs at play in laboratory colonies and field populations of the M and S forms that originated from an area of sympatry in Burkina Faso, where M and S larvae exhibit such habitat segregation. In the laboratory, larvae of the M form developed slower than the S form (mean values 9.51 and 8.85 days, respectively, Wilcoxon's test, P < 0.001).

Although wing length and dry weight at emergence showed large variations, M females were on average 8% heavier than S females of similar wing length. Higher nutritional reserves (proteins and lipids) in teneral adults explained part of this weight difference, reflecting a better ability of the M form to garner resources at the larval stage. Furthermore, a higher rate of ovarian maturation was observed in the M form after a single bloodmeal. The relevance of these findings for parasite transmission is discussed.

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