SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Flexner A. Medical Education in the United States and Canada: A Report to the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching [Carnegie Foundation Bulletin No. 4]. New York, NY: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching 1910.
  • 2
    Cooke M, Irby DM, Sullivan W, Ludmerer KM. American medical education 100 years after the Flexner report. N Engl J Med 2006;355:133944.
  • 3
    Ludmerer K. Time to Heal: American Medical Education from the Turn of the Century to the Era of Managed Care. New York, NY: Oxford University Press 1999;3–26.
  • 4
    Whitcomb ME. Commentary: Flexner redux 2010: graduate medical education in the United States. Acad Med 2009;84:14768.
  • 5
    Liaison Committee for Medical Education. Accreditation standards. http://www.lcme.org/standard.htm . [Accessed 27 January 2010.]
  • 6
    Jones MD Jr, McGuinness GA, First LR, Leslie LK, Residency Review and Redesign in Pediatrics Committee. Linking process to outcome: are we training pediatricians to meet evolving health care needs? Pediatrics 2009;23(Suppl 1):17.
  • 7
    Holmboe ES, Bowen JD, Green M, Gregg J, DiFrancesco L, Reynolds E, Alguire P, Battinelli B, Lucey C, Duffy FD. Reforming internal medicine residency training: a report from the Society of General Internal Medicine’s Task Force for Residency Reform. J Gen Intern Med 2005;20 (12):116572.
  • 8
    Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada. Specialty training requirements. http://rcpsc.medical.org/information/ . [Accessed 11 June 2010.]
  • 9
    Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada. Specialty training requirements in pediatrics. http://rcpsc.medical.org/residency/certification/training/pediat_e.pdf . [Accessed 11 June 2010.]
  • 10
    Carraccio C, Wolfsthal SD, Englander R, Ferentz K, Martin C. Shifting paradigms: from Flexner to competencies. Acad Med 2002;77:3617.
  • 11
    Harden RM. Outcomes-based education: the future is today. Med Teach 2007;29:6259.
  • 12
    Harden RM. International medical education and future directions: a global perspective. Acad Med 2006;12 (Suppl):229.
  • 13
    Nasca TJ. Where will the ‘milestones’ take us? The next accreditation system. ACGME [Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education] Bulletin September 2008. http://www.acgme.org/acWebsite/bulletin/ACG11_BulletinSep08_F.PDF . [Accessed 21 September 2010.]
  • 14
    Teunissen PW, Westerman M. Opportunity or threat: the ambiguity of transitions in medical education. 2010.
  • 15
    Lipner RS, Bylsma WH, Arnold GK, Fortna GS, Tooker J, Cassel CK. Who is maintaining certification in internal medicine – and why? A national survey 10 years after initial certification Ann Intern Med 2006;144:2936.
  • 16
    Association of American Medical Colleges. Educating Doctors to Provide High Quality Medical Care: A Vision for Medical Education in the United States. Washington, DC: AAMC 2004.
  • 17
    Institute of Medicine. Resident Duty Hours: Enhancing Sleep, Supervision, and Safety. Washington, DC: National Academy Press 2008.
  • 18
    Goddard A, Pounder R, McIntyre A, Newberry T. Implementation of the European Working Time Directive in 2009 – implications for UK clinical service provision and training for the medical specialties. Royal College of Physicians. http://www.rcplondon.ac.uk/professional-issues/workforce/workforce-issues/pages/ewtd.aspx . [Accessed 25 January 2010.]
  • 19
    Horwitz LI, Moin T, Krumholz HM, Wang L, Bradley EH. What are covering doctors told about their patients? Analysis of sign-out among internal medicine house staff Qual Saf Health Care 2009;18:24855.
  • 20
    Horwitz LI, Moin T, Krumholz HM, Wang L, Bradley EH. Consequences of inadequate sign-out for patient care. Arch Intern Med 2008;168:175560.
  • 21
    Arora V, Johnson J, Lovinger D, Humphrey HJ, Meltzer DO. Communication failures in patient sign-out and suggestions for improvement: a critical incident analysis. Qual Saf Health Care 2005;14:4017.
  • 22
    Arora VM. Tackling care transitions: mom and apple pie vs. the devil in the details. J Gen Intern Med 2009;24:9857.
  • 23
    Smith SR, Dollase R. AMEE Guide No. 14: outcomes-based education. Part 2: planning, implementing and evaluating a competency-based curriculum. Med Teach 1999;21:1522.
  • 24
    Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. Program directors and coordinators. http://www.acgme.org/acWebsite/navPages/nav_PDcoord.asp . [Accessed 11 June 2010.]
  • 25
    American Board of Medical Specialties. What board certification means. http://www.abms.org/About_Board_Certification/ . [Accessed 11 June 2010.]
  • 26
    Cooke M, Irby DM, O’Brien BC. Educating Physicians: A Call for Reform of Medical School and Residency. [Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.] San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass 2010.
  • 27
    Reinertsen JL. Zen and the art of physician autonomy maintenance. Ann Intern Med 2003;138:9925.
  • 28
    Kennedy TJT, Regehr G, Baker GR, Lingard LA. ‘It’s a cultural expectation…’ The pressure on medical trainees to work independently in medical practice. Med Educ 2009;43:64553.
  • 29
    Kennedy TJT, Regehr G, Baker GR, Lingard LA. Preserving professional credibility: grounded theory study of medical trainees’ requests for clinical support. BMJ 2009;338:12835.
  • 30
    Bernabeo EC, Holtman MH, Ginsburg S, Rosenbaum JR, Holmboe ES. Lost in transition: the experience and impact of rapid changes in the inpatient learning environment. 2010 [Under review]
  • 31
    Newble D, Stark P, Bax N, Lawson M. Developing an outcome-focused core curriculum. Med Educ 2005;39:6807.
  • 32
    Keirns CC, Bosk CL. Perspective: the unintended consequences of training residents in dysfunctional outpatient settings. Acad Med 2008;83:498502.
  • 33
    Starr PE. The Social Transformation of American Medicine: The Rise of a Sovereign Profession and the Making of a Vast Industry. New York, NY: Basic Books 1982;230–90.
  • 34
    Freidson E. Profession of Medicine. A Study of the Sociology of Applied Knowledge. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press 1988;3–71.
  • 35
    Hafferty FW, Light DW. Professional dynamics and the changing nature of medical work. J Health Soc Behav 1995;35:13253.
  • 36
    Becker H, Geer B, Hughes C, Strauss A. Boys in White. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press 1961;3–25.
  • 37
    Bosk C. Forgive and Remember: Managing Medical Failure. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press 2003;138:3571.
  • 38
    Hafferty FW, Franks R. The hidden curriculum, ethics teaching and the structure of medical education. Acad Med 1994;69:86171.
  • 39
    Hafferty FW. Beyond curriculum reform: confronting medicine’s hidden curriculum. Acad Med 1998;73:4037.
  • 40
    O’Brien B, Cooke M, Irby DM. Perceptions and attributions of third-year student struggles in clerkships: do students and clerkship directors agree? Acad Med 2007;82:9708.
  • 41
    Crandall SJ, Marion GS. Commentary: identifying attitudes towards empathy: an essential feature of professionalism. Acad Med 2009;84 (9):11746.
  • 42
    Harman G. Moral Relativism. In: HarmanG, ThompsonJJ, eds. Moral Relativism and Moral Objectivity.Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers 1996;364.
  • 43
    Wong DB. Moral Relativity. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press 1984;43:531.
  • 44
    Christakis DA, Feudtner C. Temporary matters: the ethical consequences of transient social relationships in medical training. JAMA 1997;278:73943.
  • 45
    Rosenbaum JR, Bradley EH, Holmboe ES, Farrell M, Krumholz HM. Sources of ethical discomfort in medical housestaff training. Am J Med 2004;116:4027.
  • 46
    Suchman AL. A new theoretical foundation for relationship-centred care. Complex responsive processes of relating. J Gen Intern Med 2006;21 (Suppl 1):404.
  • 47
    Baker DP, Salas E, King H, Battles J, Barach P. The role of teamwork in professional education of physicians: current status and recommendations. Jt Comm J Qual Saf 2005;31:185202.
  • 48
    Leggat SG. Effective teamwork requires effective team members: defining teamwork competencies. BMC Health Serv Res 2007;7:17.
  • 49
    Zwarenstein M, Reeves S. Knowledge translation and interprofessional collaboration: where the rubber of evidence-based care hits the road of teamwork. J Contin Educ Health Prof 2006;26:4654.
  • 50
    MacDonald C. Nurse autonomy as relational. Nurs Ethics 2002;9:194201.
  • 51
    Sherwin S. A relational approach to autonomy in health care. In: SherwinS, ed. The Politics of Women’s Health: Exploring Agency and Autonomy. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press 1998;1947.
  • 52
    Lanham HJ, McDaniel RR Jr, Crabtree BF, Miller WL, Stange KC, Tallia AF, Nutting P. How improving practice relationships among clinicians and non-clinicians can improve quality in primary care. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf 2009;35 (9):45766.
  • 53
    Monrouxe LV. Identity, identification and medical education: why should we care? Med Educ 2010;44:409.
  • 54
    Bleakley A. Broadening conceptions of learning in medical education: the message from teamworking. Med Educ 2006;40:1507.
  • 55
    Regehr G. Trends in medical education research. Acad Med 2004;79:93947.
  • 56
    Knowles M. The Adult Learner: A Neglected Species. Houston, TX: Gulf Publishing 1978;39:635.
  • 57
    Brookfield S. Understanding and Facilitating Adult Learning. Milton Keynes: Open University Press 1986;83:2540.
  • 58
    Boud D. Developing Student Autonomy in Learning. London: RoutledgeFalmer 1987;5–40.
  • 59
    Kolb D. Experiential Learning. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall 1984;1–38.
  • 60
    Hall P, Weaver L. Interdisciplinary education and teamwork: a long and winding road. Med Educ 2006;35 (Suppl):1620.
  • 61
    Ericsson KA. The influence of expertise and deliberate practice on the development of superior expert performance. In: EricssonKA, CharnessN, HoffmanRR, FeltovichPJ, eds. Cambridge Handbook of Expertise and Expert Performance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 2006;683704.
  • 62
    Ericsson KA. An expert-performance perspective of research on medical expertise: the study of clinical performance. Med Educ 2007;41 (12):112430.
  • 63
    Cleary L. ‘Forward feeding’ about students’ progress: the case for longitudinal, progressive and shared assessment of medical students. Acad Med 2008;83 (9):800.
  • 64
    Cox SM. ‘Forward feeding’ about students’ progress information on struggling medical students should not be shared among clerkship directors or with students’ current teachers. Acad Med 2008;83 (9):801.
  • 65
    Pangaro L. ‘Forward feeding’ about students’ progress: more information will enable better policy. Acad Med 2008;83 (9):8023.
  • 66
    Lucey CR, Boote RM. Working with problem residents: a systematic approach. In: HolmboeES, HawkinsRE, eds. Practical Guide to the Evaluation of Clinical Competence. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby-Elsevier 2008;20115.
  • 67
    Hauer KE, Ciccone A, Henzel TR, Katsufrakis P, Miller SH, Norcross WA, Papadakis MA, Irby DM. Remediation of the deficiencies of physicians across the continuum from medical school to practice: a thematic review of the literature. Acad Med 2009;84:182232.
  • 68
    Davis DA, Mazmanian PE, Fordis M, Van Harrison R, Thorpe KE, Perrier L. Accuracy of physician self-assessment compared with observed measures of competence: a systematic review. JAMA 2006;296:1094102.
  • 69
    Eva KW, Cunnington JP, Reiter HI, Keane DR, Norman GR. How can I know what I don’t know? Poor self-assessment in a well-defined domain Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract 2004;9:21124.
  • 70
    Eva KW, Regehr G. ‘I’ll never play professional football’ and other fallacies of self-assessment. J Contin Educ Health Prof 2008;28:149.
  • 71
    Clance PR, Imes SA. The impostor phenomenon in high-achieving women: dynamics and therapeutic intervention. Psychother Theory Res Pract 1978;15:2417.
  • 72
    Langford J, Clance PR. The impostor phenomenon: recent research findings regarding dynamics, personality and family patterns and their implications for treatment. Psychotherapy 1993;30:495501.
  • 73
    Legassie J, Zibrowski EM, Goldszmidt MA. Measuring resident well-being: impostorism and burnout syndrome in residency. J Gen Intern Med 2008;23 (7):10904.
  • 74
    Axelson RD, Kreiter CD. Reliability. In: DowningSM, YudkowskyR, eds. Assessment in the Health Professions. New York, NY: Routledge 2009;57–75.
  • 75
    Mihalynuk T, Bates J, Page G, Fraser J. Student learning experiences in a longitudinal clerkship programme. Med Educ. 2008;42(7):729–32.
  • 76
    Ogur B, Hirsh D. Learning through longitudinal patient care-narratives from the Harvard Medical School-Cambridge integrated clerkship. Acad Med 2009;84:84450.
  • 77
    Norris TE, Schaad DC, DeWitt D, Ogur B, Hunt DD, Consortium of Longitudinal Integrated Clerkships. Longitudinal integrated clerkships for medical students: an innovation adopted by medical schools in Australia, Canada, South Africa, and the United States. Acad Med 2009;84:9027.
  • 78
    Hauer KE, O’Brien B, Poncelet AN. Longitudinal, integrated clerkship education: better for learners and patients. Acad Med 2009;84:821.
  • 79
    Hirsh DA, Ogur B, Thibault GE, Cox M. Continuity as an organising principle for clinical educational reform. N Engl J Med 2007;356:85866.
  • 80
    Teherani A, O’Brien BC, Masters DE, Poncelet AN, Robertson PA, Hauer KE. Burden, responsibility, and reward: preceptor experiences with the continuity of teaching in a longitudinal integrated clerkship. Acad Med 2009;84 (Suppl):503.
  • 81
    Ogrinc G, Headrick LA, Morrison LJ, Foster T. Teaching and assessing resident competence in practice-based learning and improvement. J Gen Intern Med 2004;19:496500.
  • 82
    Ogrinc G, Headrick LA, Mutha S, Coleman MT, O’Donnell JO, Miles PV. A framework for teaching medical students and residents about practice-based learning and improvement, synthesised from a literature review. Acad Med 2003;78:74856.
  • 83
    Institute of Medicine. Educating Health Professionals: A Bridge to Quality. Washington, DC: National Academy Press 2003.
  • 84
    Audet AM, Doty MM, Shamasdin J, Schoenbaum SC. Measure, learn, and improve: physicians’ involvement in quality improvement. Health Aff 2005;24:84353.
  • 85
    Nelson EC, Batalden PB, Godfrey MM, eds. Quality by Design: A Clinical Microsystems Approach. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass 2007;3–51.
  • 86
    Nelson EC, Batalden PB, Huber TP, Mohr JJ, Godfrey MM, Headrick LA, Wasson JH. Microsystems in healthcare. Part 1: learning from high-performing front-line clinical units. Jt Comm J Qual Saf 2002;28:47293.
  • 87
    Batalden PB, Nelson EC, Edwards WH, Godfrey MM, Mohr JJ. Microsystems in healthcare. Part 9: developing small clinical units to attain peak performance. Jt Comm J Qual Saf 2003;29:57585.
  • 88
    Bowen JL, Salerno SM, Chamberlain JK, Eckstrom E, Chen HL, Brandenburg S. Changing habits of practice. Transforming internal medicine residency education in ambulatory settings. J Gen Intern Med 2005;20:11817.
  • 89
    McDaniel RR, Driebe DJ. Complexity science and health care management. In: BlairJD, FottlerMD, SavageGT, eds. Advances in Health Care Management, Vol. 2. Stamford, CT: JAI Press 2001;1136.
  • 90
    Lynn LA, Hess BJ, Conforti LN, Lipner RS, Holmboe ES. The effect of residency clinic systems on the quality of care for older adults in internal and family medicine residency programmes. Acad Med 2009;84:173240.
  • 91
    Reddy SG, Babbott SF, Beasley BW, Nadkarni M, Gertner E, Holmboe ES. Prevalence and functionality of electronic health records in internal medicine continuity clinics. Acad Med; 2010;85(5):787–90.
  • 92
    Langley GJ, Nolan KM, Nolan TW, Norman CL, Provost LP. The Improvement Guide. A Practical Approach to Enhancing Organizational Performance. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass 1996;329.
  • 93
    Philibert I. Involving residents in quality improvement: contrasting ‘top-down’ and ‘bottom-up’ approaches. Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and Institute for Healthcare Improvement 90-Day Project. http://www.acgme.org/acWebsite/ci/90DayProjectReportDFA_PA_09_15_08.pdf . [Accessed 15 January 2010.]
  • 94
    Windish DM, Reed DA, Boonyasai RT, Chakraborti C, Bass EB. Methodological rigor of quality improvement curricula for physician trainees: a systematic review and recommendations for change. Acad Med 2009;84:167792.
  • 95
    Warm EJ. Interval examination: the ambulatory long block. J Gen Intern Med 2010;25:7502.
  • 96
    Warm EJ, Schauer DP, Diers T, Mathis BR, Neirouz Y, Boex JR, Rouan GW. The ambulatory long-block: an Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) educational innovations project (EIP). J Gen Intern Med 2008;23 (7):9216.
  • 97
    Volpp GM, Grande D. Residents’ suggestions for reducing errors in teaching hospitals. N Engl J Med 2003;348:8515.
  • 98
    Holmboe ES, Prince L, Green ML. Teaching and improving quality of care in a residency clinic. Acad Med 2005;80:5717.
  • 99
    Kegan R, Lahey LL. How the Way We Talk Can Change the Way We Work. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass 2001;6788.