• 1
    Southgate L, Hays RB, Norcini J et al. Setting performance standards for medical practice: a theoretical framework. Med Educ 2001;35:47481.
  • 2
    Southgate L, Cox J, David T et al. The assessment of poorly performing doctors: the development of the assessment programmes for the General Medical Council’s Performance Procedures. Med Educ 2001;35 (Suppl 1):28.
  • 3
    Kohn LT, Corrigan JM, Donaldson MS. To Err is Human: Building A Safer Health System. A Report of the Committee on Quality of Health Care. Washington, DC: National Academy Press 2000.
  • 4
    Wass V, van der Vleuten C, Shatzer J, Jones R. Assessment of clinical competence. Lancet 2001;357:9458.
  • 5
    Norcini JJ. Peer assessment of competence. Med Educ 2003;37:53943.
  • 6
    Holmboe ES. Faculty and the observation of trainees’ clinical skills: problems and opportunities. Acad Med 2004;79:1622.
  • 7
    Independent Inquiry into Modernising Medical Careers. Aspiring to Excellence. London: MMC Inquiry 2008.
  • 8
    Collins J. Foundation for Excellence – An Evaluation of the Foundation Programme. London: Medical Education England 2010.
  • 9
    Miller A, Archer J. Impact of workplace-based assessment on doctors’ education and performance: a systematic review. BMJ 2010;341:c5064.
  • 10
    General Medical Council. Good Medical Practice: providing good medical care. London: GMC 2006.
  • 11
    Bhat S, Grue RB, Baker P. Ill health in Foundation trainees. British Medical Association, American Medical Association, Canadian Medical Association International Conference on Doctors’ Health: Doctors’ Health Matters – Finding the Balance, 17–19 November 2008, London. London: BMA 2008;37
  • 12
    Durning SJ, Cation LJ, Markert RJ, Pangaro LN. Assessing the reliability and validity of the mini-clinical evaluation exercise for internal medicine residency training. Acad Med 2002;77:9004.
  • 13
    Rethans JJ, Norcini JJ, Baron-Maldonado M, Blackmore D, Jolly BC, LaDuca T, Lew S, Page GG, Southgate LH. The relationship between competence and performance: implications for assessing practice performance. Med Educ 2002;36 (10):9019.
  • 14
    Archer JC, Norcini JJ, Davies HA. Peer review of paediatricians in training using SPRAT. BMJ 2005;330:12513.
  • 15
    Evans R, Elwyn G, Edwards A. Review of instruments for peer assessment of physicians. BMJ 2004;328 (7450):1240.
  • 16
    Sargeant JM, Mann KV, Ferrier S. Exploring family physicians’ reactions to multi-source feedback: perceptions of credibility and usefulness. Med Educ 2005;39:497504.
  • 17
    Norcini JJ, Blank LL, Arnold GK, Kimball HR. The mini-CEX (clinical evaluation exercise): a preliminary investigation. Ann Intern Med 1995;123:7959.
  • 18
    Wragg A, Wade W, Fuller G, Cowan G, Mills P. Assessing the performance of specialist registrars. Clin Med 2003;3 (2):1314.
  • 19
    Norcini JJ. Workplace-based assessment in clinical training. ASME Publication No. 31. Med Teach 2007;29 (9):85571.
  • 20
    Norman GR, Davis D, Painvin A, Lindsay E, Rath D, Ragbeer M. Comprehensive assessment of clinical competence of family/general physicians using multiple measures. Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Research in Medical Education. Washington, DC: Association of American Medical Colleges 1989;759.
  • 21
    Maatsch JL, Huang R, Downing S, Barker B. Predictive validity of medical specialty examinations – Final report for Grant HS 02038-04. East Lansing, MI: National Center of Health Services Research, Office of Medical Education and Research and Development, Michigan State University 1983.