• 1
    Littlewood S, Ypinazar V, Margolis SA, Scherpbier A, Spencer J, Dornan T. Early practical experience and the social responsiveness of clinical education: systematic review. BMJ2005;331 (7531):38791.
  • 2
    General Medical Council. Tomorrow’s Doctors. Outcomes and standards for undergraduate medical education. London: GMC 2009.
  • 3
    Scott JC. Seeing Like a State: How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press 1998;464 pp.
  • 4
    Dornan T, Tan N, Boshuizen H, Gick R, Isba R, Mann K, Scherpbier A, Spencer J, Woolley E. Experience-based learning (ExBL). Realist synthesis of the conditions, processes, and outcomes of medical students’ workplace learning. 2012 (under review).
  • 5
    Yardley S. Understanding Authentic Early Experience in Undergraduate Medical Education. PhD thesis. Keele: Keele University 2011.
  • 6
    Flexner A. Medical Education in the United States and Canada: Bulletin No. 4. New York, NY: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching 1910.
  • 7
    Prince KJAH, Boshuizen HPA, van der Vleuten CPM, Scherpbier AJJA. Students’ opinions about their preparation for clinical practice. Med Educ2005;39:70412.
  • 8
    Hopayian K, Howe A, Dagley V. A survey of UK medical schools’ arrangements for early patient contact. Med Teach2007;29:80613.
  • 9
    Dornan T, Littlewood S, Margolis SA, Scherpbier A, Spencer J, Ypinazar V. How can experience in clinical and community settings contribute to early medical education? A BEME systematic review. Med Teach2006;28:138.
  • 10
    Yardley S, Littlewood S, Margolis SA, Scherpbier A, Spencer J, Ypinazar V, Dornan T. What has changed in the evidence for early experience? Update of a BEME systematic review. Med Teach2010;32:7406.
  • 11
    Regehr G. It’s NOT rocket science: rethinking our metaphors for research in health professions education. Med Educ2010;44:319.
  • 12
    O’Neill P, Duplock A, Willis S. Using clinical experience in discussion within problem-based learning groups. Adv Health Sci Educ2006;11:34963.
  • 13
    Dornan T, Boshuizen H, King N, Scherpbier A. Experience-based learning: a model linking the processes and outcomes of medical students’ workplace learning. Med Educ2007;41:8491.
  • 14
    Bell K, Boshuizen HP, Scherpbier A, Dornan T. When only the real thing will do: junior medical students learning from real patients. Med Educ2009;43:103643.
  • 15
    Dornan T, Bundy C. What can experience add to early medical education? Consensus survey. BMJ2004;329:8349.
  • 16
    Dornan T. Towards valid measures of self-directed clinical learning. Med Educ2003;37:983991.
  • 17
    Irby DM, Cooke M, O’Brien BC. Calls for the reform of medical education by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching: 1910 and 2010. Acad Med2010;85 (2):2207.
  • 18
    Durning SJ, Artino AR, Pangaro LN, van der Vleuten CPM, Schuwirth L. Redefining context in the clinical encounter: implications for research and training in medical education. Acad Med2010;85:894901.
  • 19
    Engeström Y. Expansive learning at work: toward an activity theoretical reconceptualisation. J Educ Work2001;14:13356.
  • 20
    Engeström Y. Toward the encapsulation of school learning, learning and instruction. In: Daniels H, ed. An Introduction to Vygotsky, 2nd edn. London: Routledge 2005;15372.
  • 21
    Arnseth HC. Activity theory and situated learning theory: contrasting views of educational practice. Pedagog Cult Soc2008;16:289302.
  • 22
    Merton RK. The unanticipated consequences of purposive social action. Am Sociol Rev1936;1 (894):904.
  • 23
    Miles MB, Huberman A. An Expanded Sourcebook: Qualitative Data Analysis, 2nd edn. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications 1994;353 pp.
  • 24
    Kvale S, Brinkman S. Interviews: Learning the Craft of Qualitative Interviewing, 2nd edn. Sage Publications: London 2009;376 pp.
  • 25
    Corbin J, Strauss A. Basics of Qualitative Research, 3rd edn. London: Sage Publications 2008;400 pp.
  • 26
    Silverman D. Doing Qualitative Research, 2nd edn. London: Sage Publications 2005;472 pp.
  • 27
    Riessman CK. Narrative Methods for the Human Sciences. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications 2008.
  • 28
    Webster L, Mertova P. Using Narrative Inquiry: An Introduction to Using Critical Event Narrative Analysis in Research on Learning and Teaching. London: Routledge 2007;152 pp.
  • 29
    Frey JH, Fontana A. The group interview in social research. Soc Sci J1991;28 (2):17587.
  • 30
    Morgan DL. Focus Groups as Qualitative Research, 2nd edn. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications 1997;88 pp.
  • 31
    Monrouxe LV, Rees C, Bradley P. The construction of patients’ involvement in hospital bedside teaching encounters. Qual Health Res2009;19 (7):91830.
  • 32
    Smith J, Osborn M. Interpretative phenomenological analysis. In: Smith J, ed. Qualitative Psychology: A Practical Guide to Research Methods. London: Sage Publications 2008;5180.
  • 33
    Smith J. Beyond the divide between cognition and discourse: using interpretative phenomenological analysis in health psychology. Psychol Health1996;1:26171.
  • 34
    Brosnan C. The Sociology of Medical Education: the struggle for legitimate knowledge in two English medical schools. Doctoral thesis. University of Cambridge 2007.
  • 35
    Colliver J, Conlee MJ, Verhulst SJ, Dorsey JK. Reports of the decline in empathy during medical education are greatly exaggerated: a re-examination of the research. Acad Med2010;85:58893.
  • 36
    Pedersen R. Empathy development in medical education – a critical review. Med Teach2010;32:593600.
  • 37
    Lave J, Wenger E. Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1991;138 pp.
  • 38
    Bloom SW. Power and Dissent in the Medical School. New York, NY: Free Press 1973;191 pp.
  • 39
    Merton RK, Reader G, Kendall PL, eds. The Student Physician: Introductory Studies in the Sociology of Medical Education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press 1957;360 pp.
  • 40
    Becker H, Geer B, Strauss A. Boys in White. New York, NY: Transaction 1977;472 pp.
  • 41
    Hafferty FW, Castellani B. The hidden curriculum: a theory of medical education. In: Brosnan C, Turner BS, eds. Handbook of the Sociology of Medical Education. Abingdon: Routledge 2009;1535.