• 1
    Gibbs T, Durning S, van der Vleuten CPM. Theories in medical education: towards creating a union between educational practice and research traditions. Med Teach 2011;33:1837.
  • 2
    Albert M, Reeves S. Setting some new standards in medical education research. Med Educ 2010;44:6389.
  • 3
    Prideaux D, Bligh J. Research in medical education: asking the right questions. Med Educ 2002;36:11145.
  • 4
    Bordage G. Conceptual frameworks to illuminate and magnify. Med Educ 2009;43:3129.
  • 5
    Cook DA, Bordage G, Schmidt HG. Description, justification and clarification: a framework for classifying the purposes of research in medical education. Med Educ 2008;42:12833.
  • 6
    Colliver JA. Educational theory and medical education practice: a cautionary note for medical school faculty. Acad Med 2002;77:121720.
  • 7
    Norman G. Theory testing research versus theory-based research. Adv Health Sci Educ 2004;9:1758.
  • 8
    Prochaska JO, Wright JA, Velicer WF. Evaluating theories of health behaviour change: a hierarchy of criteria applied to the transtheoretical model. Appl Psychol 2008;57:56188.
  • 9
    Cilliers FJ, Schuwirth LWT, Herman N, Adendorff H, van der Vleuten CPM. A model of the pre-assessment learning effects of summative assessment in medical education. Adv Health Sci Educ 2012;17:3953.
  • 10
    Dochy F, Segers M, Gijbels D, Struyven K. Assessment engineering: breaking down barriers between teaching and learning, and assessment. In: Boud D, Falchikov N, eds. Rethinking Assessment in Higher Education: Learning for the Longer Term. Oxford: Routledge 2007;87100.
  • 11
    Larsen DP, Butler AC, Roediger HL 3rd. Test-enhanced learning in medical education. Med Educ 2008;42:95966.
  • 12
    Sundre DL, Kitsantas A. An exploration of the psychology of the examinee: can examinee self-regulation and test-taking motivation predict consequential and non-consequential test performance? Contemp Educ Psychol 2004;29:626.
  • 13
    Cilliers FJ, Schuwirth LWT, van der Vleuten CPM. A model of the pre-assessment learning effects of assessment is operational in an undergraduate clinical context. BMC Med Educ 2012;12: Article no. 9.
  • 14
    Lippke S, Ziegelmann JP. Theory-based health behaviour change: developing, testing, and applying theories for evidence-based interventions. Appl Psychol 2008;57:698716.
  • 15
    Heijne-Penninga M, Kuks JBM, Hofman WHA, Cohen-Schotanus J. Influence of open- and closed-book tests on medical students’ learning approaches. Med Educ 2008;42:96774.
  • 16
    Cilliers FJ, Schuwirth LWT, Adendorff HJ, Herman N, van der Vleuten CPM. The mechanism of impact of summative assessment on medical students’ learning. Adv Health Sci Educ 2010;15:695715.
  • 17
    van Etten S, Freebern G, Pressley M. College students’ beliefs about exam preparation. Contemp Educ Psychol 1997;22:192212.
  • 18
    Broekkamp H, van Hout-Wolters BHAM. Students’ adaptation of study strategies when preparing for classroom tests. Educ Psychol Rev 2007;19:40128.
  • 19
    Becker HS, Geer B, Hughes EC. Making the Grade: The Academic Side of College Life. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons 1968.
  • 20
    Ross ME, Green S, Salisbury-Glennon JD, Tollefson N. College students’ study strategies as a function of testing: an investigation into metacognitive self-regulation. Innov Higher Educ 2006;30:36175.
  • 21
    Ross ME, Salisbury-Glennon JD, Guarino A, Reed CJ, Marshall M. Situated self-regulation: modelling the inter-relationships among instruction, assessment, learning strategies and academic performance. Educ Res Eval 2003;9:189209.
  • 22
    Lievens F, Peeters H, Schollaert E. Situational judgement tests: a review of recent research. Pers Rev 2008;37:42641.
  • 23
    Page G, Bordage G, Allen T. Developing key-feature problems and examinations to assess clinical decision-making skills. Acad Med 1995;70:194201.
  • 24
    Dillman DA, Smyth JD, Christian LM. Internet, Mail, and Mixed-Mode Surveys: the Tailored Design Method, 3rd edn. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons 2009;15–40.
  • 25
    Göritz AS. Incentives in web studies: methodological issues and a review. Int J Internet Sci 2006;1:5870.
  • 26
    Huang JY, Hubbard SM, Mulvey KP. Obtaining valid response rates: considerations beyond the tailored design method. Eval Program Plann 2003;26:917.
  • 27
    Sambell K, McDowell L, Brown S. ‘But is it fair?’: an exploratory study of student perceptions of the consequential validity of assessment. Stud Educ Eval 1997;23:34971.
  • 28
    Thomson K, Falchikov N. ‘Full on until the sun comes out’: the effects of assessment on student approaches to studying. Assess Eval Higher Educ 1998;23:37990.
  • 29
    Miller CML, Parlett M. Up to the Mark: A Study of the Examination Game. London: Society for Research into Higher Education 1974.
  • 30
    Snyder BR. The Hidden Curriculum. New York, NY: Alfred A Knopf 1971.
  • 31
    Becker HS, Geer B, Hughes EC, Strauss A. Boys in White. Student Culture in Medical School. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press 1961.
  • 32
    Frederiksen N. The real test bias: influences of testing on teaching and learning. Am Psychol 1984;39:193202.
  • 33
    Newble DI, Jaeger K. The effect of assessment and examinations on the learning of medical students. Med Educ 1983;17:16571.
  • 34
    Ramsden P. The context of learning. In: Marton F, Hounsell D, Entwistle NJ, eds. The Experience of Learning. Edinburgh: Scottish Academic Press 1984;14464.
  • 35
    Sambell K, McDowell L. The construction of the hidden curriculum: messages and meanings in the assessment of student learning. Assess Eval Higher Educ 1998;23:391402.
  • 36
    Parlett M. Undergraduate teaching observed. Nature 1969;223:11024.
  • 37
    Callahan CA, Hojat M, Gonnella JS. Volunteer bias in medical education research: an empirical study of over three decades of longitudinal data. Med Educ 2007;41:74653.
  • 38
    Robinson DH, Levin JR, Thomas GD, Pituch KA, Vaughn S. The incidence of ‘causal’ statements in teaching-and-learning research journals. Am Educ Res J 2007;44:40013.
  • 39
    Monrouxe LV, Rees CE. Picking up the gauntlet: constructing medical education as a social science. Med Educ 2009;43:1968.