The Australian sheep blowfly, Lucilia cuprina, was first identified in New Zealand in 1988 and is now found to have spread throughout many sheep-farming regions. L. cuprina is estimated to have been present in New Zealand < 20 years, while in Australia L. cuprina has been estimated present > 100 years. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic effects of colonization of L. cuprina and to compare populations of L. cuprina from these two countries in terms of genetic variability and differentiation. Allozyme electrophoresis was used which revealed variability at six loci. 1680 blowflies were examined from 56 sites throughout L. cuprina's range in both countries. Genetic variability at each locus in terms of allele composition was found to be high and genetic differentiation varied considerably in New Zealand in comparison to Australia. Temporal sampling in New Zealand suggests seasonal fluctuations of population size in the recently colonized region of the South Island.