We studied sequence variation of a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing among 85 Norwegian Atlantic cod Gadus morhua, from nine sampling localities representing three overall areas: arctic, coastal and middle. In the analysis we include an additional 15 cod studied by Carr & Marshall (1991a). Nine base changes were found among the 100 sequences defining 11 haplotypes which differ from each other by one to five mutations. Two sites have been hit twice. All but one mutation are at third position silent sites. The variation passes several neutral-theory tests and is thus suitable as marker for studying population differentiation. Coefficients of coancestry or intraclass correlation coefficient are negative both at the level of individuals within localities and localities within areas. This implies greater differences among individuals within populations than between populations. Intralocality nucleotide diversity is high and masks interlocality nucleotide divergence such that the net interlocality nucleotide divergence is nil. Similarly the net interarea nucleotide divergence is nil.