Although it has been long presumed that population genetic variability should decrease as a species’ range margin is approached, results of empirical investigations remain ambiguous. Sampling strategies employed by many of these studies have not adequately sampled the entire range. Here we present the results of an investigation of population genetic diversity in a vertebrate species, the Italian agile frog, Rana latastei, sampled comprehensively across its entire range. Our results show that genetic variability is not correlated with population location with respect to the range periphery. Instead, the model that best explains the genetic variation detectable across the range is based on an east-to-west gradient of declining diversity. Although we cannot state definitively what has led to this distribution, the most likely explanation is that the range of Rana latastei expanded postglacially from a Balkan refugium.