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Keywords:

  • Ambystoma;
  • mating system;
  • microsatellites;
  • multiple paternity;
  • reproductive skew

Abstract

Aggregate, or explosive, breeding is widespread among vertebrates and likely increases the probability of multiple paternity. We assessed paternity in seven field-collected clutches of the explosively breeding spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) using 10 microsatellite loci to determine the frequency of multiple paternity and the number of males contributing to a female's clutch. Using the Minimum Method of allele counts, multiple paternity was evident in 70% of these egg masses. Simple allele counts underestimate the number of contributing males because this method cannot distinguish multiple fathers with common or similar alleles. Therefore, we used computer simulations to estimate from the offspring genotypes the most likely number of contributing fathers given the distributions of allele frequencies in this population. We determined that two to eight males may contribute to A. maculatum clutches; therefore, multiple paternity is a common strategy in this aggregate breeding species. In aggregate mating systems competition for mates can be intense, thus differential reproductive success (reproductive skew) among males contributing to a female's clutch could be a probable outcome. We use our data to evaluate the potential effect of reproductive skew on estimates of the number of contributing males. We simulated varying scenarios of differential male reproductive success, ranging from equal contribution to high reproductive skew among contributing sires in multiply sired clutches. Our data suggest that even intermediate levels of reproductive skew decrease confidence substantially in estimates of the number of contributing sires when parental genotypes are unknown.