Previous work showed that insecticide resistance in Drosophila melanogaster is correlated with the insertion of an Accord-like element into the 5′ region of the cytochrome P450 gene, Cyp6g1. Here, we study the distribution of the Accord-like element in 673 recently collected D. melanogaster lines from 34 world-wide populations. We also examine the extent of microsatellite variability along a 180-kilobase (kb) genomic region of chromosome II encompassing the resistance gene. We confirm a 100% correlation of the Accord insertion with insecticide resistance and a significant reduction in variability extending at least 20 kb downstream of the Cyp6g1 gene. The frequency of the Accord insertion differs significantly between East African (32–55%) and nonAfrican (85–100%) populations. This pattern is consistent with a selective sweep driving the Accord insertion close to fixation in nonAfrican populations as a result of the insecticide resistance phenotype it confers. This study confirms that hitchhiking mapping can be used to identify beneficial mutations in natural populations.