A phylogeographical study of the Russian (Siberian) flying squirrel (Pteromys volans) was carried out using the complete mitochondrial (mt) cytochrome b gene sequences with special reference to the refugia theory for the arboreal traits of this species. We examined 31 specimens from 24 localities, resulting in 28 haplotypes. One breeding specimen with a unique haplotype from Hokkaido, Japan was included in the phylogenetic analysis. There were three mtDNA lineages: Hokkaido, Far Eastern, and northern Eurasia. Divergence data among lineages demonstrated that the Hokkaido group separated from the other groups during the Holsteinian interglacial. The phylogeographical pattern of P. volans is different from that previously reported for terrestrial rodents associated with treeless habitats. Unlike grasslands, forests decreased during glaciation and moved southward because of the cold and arid environmental conditions. The glacial refugia of P. volans would have been associated with forest dynamics in the Pleistocene.