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Keywords:

  • adenosine kinase;
  • atpB-rbcL spacer;
  • Ceratodon purpureus;
  • intercontinental migration;
  • phytochrome 2;
  • selection

Abstract

The moss Ceratodon purpureus has long been used as a model system in plant development and physiology. However, the molecular population genetics of the species remains virtually unexplored. In this study, we used population genetic analyses of DNA sequence data from three unlinked loci (atpB-rbcL spacer, adk, and phy2) to examine biogeographical patterns in a global sample of this species. The three loci differed significantly in mutation frequency spectra and implied population structure. Pairs of haplotypes from single populations were frequently more divergent than haplotypes sampled from widely disjunct populations. In the atpB-rbcL spacer and adk samples, Australasian haplotypes were more closely related to Northern Hemisphere haplotypes than to haplotypes found in the equatorial regions. In contrast, the phy2 sample showed that the north and south temperate regions were genetically divergent, with the equatorial regions intermediate. Maximum-likelihood estimates (MLE) of the rates of migration between the two hemispheres were significantly different for the two nuclear genes. The frequency spectra of mutations indicated that differences in implied population structure among the three loci resulted from directional selection on the chloroplast genome and on the chromosomal segment containing adk. Collectively, these data suggest that long-distance migration within the Northern Hemisphere and Australasian regions is common (relative to the mutation rate) and that migration between these two regions, potentially via equatorial populations, is more frequent than migration among equatorial populations.