DNA sequences from five nuclear loci and data from three microsatellites were collected from 360 isolates representing 14 globally distributed populations of the plant pathogenic fungus Mycosphaerella graminicola. Haplotype networks were constructed for the five sequence loci and population subdivision was assessed using Hudson's permutation test. Migration estimates were calculated using six regional populations for both the sequence and microsatellite loci. While subdivision was detected among the six regional populations, significant gene flow was indicated among some of the populations. The European and Israeli populations contributed the majority of historical immigrants to the New World. Migration estimates for microsatellite loci were used to infer more recent migration events among specific New World populations. We conclude that gene flow was an important factor in determining the demographic history of Mycosphaerella graminicola.