The use of noninvasive genetic sampling to identify individual animals for capture–recapture studies has become widespread in the past decade. Strong emphasis has been placed on the field protocols and genetic analyses with fruitful results. Little attention has been paid to the capture–recapture application for this specific type of data beyond stating the effects of assumption violations. Here, we review the broad class of capture–recapture methods that are available for use with DNA-based capture–recapture data, noting the array of biologically interesting parameters such as survival, emigration rates, state transition rates and the finite rate of population change that can be estimated from such data. We highlight recent developments in capture–recapture theory specifically designed for noninvasive genetic sampling data.