Box 1 The Robust Design
Review of capture–recapture methods applicable to noninvasive genetic sampling
Article first published online: 7 SEP 2005
Volume 14, Issue 13, pages 3909–3919, November 2005
How to Cite
LUKACS, P. M. and BURNHAM, K. P. (2005), Review of capture–recapture methods applicable to noninvasive genetic sampling. Molecular Ecology, 14: 3909–3919. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2005.02717.x
The robust design (Pollock 1982; Kendall et al. 1997) is one of the most useful sampling designs for capture–recapture studies. The robust design refers both to a sampling design and the class of models used for its analysis. The design consists of two levels of sampling periods. The primary sampling occasions are separated by a relatively long period of time over which the population is assumed to be demographically and geographically open, this means that birth, death, immigration and emigration all may occur. At each primary sampling occasion, there are several secondary sampling occasions. Secondary sampling occasions occur over a very short time interval. The population is assumed to be closed between secondary sampling occasions, although generalizations to this exist. The robust design allows abundance, temporary emigration/immigration rates, and survival to be estimated. Capture probability is estimated by secondary sampling occasion, therefore allowing a robust estimate of abundance for each primary occasion.
Across secondary sampling occasions within a primary occasion, it is best to actively try to give all individuals a chance of being detected. For example, it could be useful to change the type of scent lure used on different occasions to appeal to a broader range of the population. In addition, it is useful to have multiple sampling locations within an individuals home range to increase the probability of detecting an individual.
Box 2 Software available for capture–recapture analysis
mark — Software for open- and closed-population capture–recapture and patch occupancy analysis. mark has taken the place of many older programs such as capture, release, and brownie. mark includes models specifically designed to estimate genotyping error rate. It is freely available at http://www.cnr.colostate.edu/~gwhite/mark/mark.htm.
m-surge— Software for multistate or multistrata problems or other open-population capture–recapture for which the multistrata model is a generalization. m-surge is freely available at ftp://ftp.cefe.cnrs-mop.fr/biom/Soft-CR/.
popan— Software for the analysis of Jolly–Seber model problems. popan is freely available at http://www.cs.umanitoba.ca/~popan/ and also available within mark.
presence— Software for the analysis of patch occupancy data. presence includes variations on patch occupancy models such as multispecies occupancy, robust design and latent abundance. It is freely available at http://www.mbr-pwrc.usgs.gov/software.html.
Analysis Software Forum— An online forum and other electronic resources for capture–recapture software and analysis are available at http://www.phidot.org/forum.
- Issue published online: 24 OCT 2005
- Article first published online: 7 SEP 2005
- Received 14 March 2005; revision received 17 June 2005; accepted 25 July 2005
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