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Y-chromosome analysis confirms highly sex-biased dispersal and suggests a low male effective population size in bonobos (Pan paniscus)

Authors

  • JONAS ERIKSSON,

    1. Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany,
    2. Department of Animal Ecology, Evolutionary Biology Centre (EBC), Uppsala University, Norbyvägen 18D, SE-752 36 Uppsala, Sweden,
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  • HEIKE SIEDEL,

    1. Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany,
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  • DIETER LUKAS,

    1. Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany,
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  • MANFRED KAYSER,

    1. Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany,
    2. Department of Forensic Molecular Biology, Erasmus University Medical Center Rotterdam, Dr Molewaterplein 50, 3015 GE Rotterdam, The Netherlands,
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  • AXEL ERLER,

    1. Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany,
    2. Department of Genomics, Technical University Dresden BIOTEC, Tatzberg 47-51, D-01307 Dresden, Germany,
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  • CHIE HASHIMOTO,

    1. Kyoto University Primate Research Institute, Kanrin, Inuyama, Aichi 484-8506, Japan
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  • GOTTFRIED HOHMANN,

    1. Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany,
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  • CHRISTOPHE BOESCH,

    1. Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany,
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  • LINDA VIGILANT

    Corresponding author
    1. Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany,
      L. Vigilant, Fax: +49 341 3550299; E-mail: vigilant@eva.mpg.de.
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  • Jonas Eriksson and Heike Siedel contributed equally to this work.

L. Vigilant, Fax: +49 341 3550299; E-mail: vigilant@eva.mpg.de.

Abstract

Dispersal is a rare event that is difficult to observe in slowly maturing, long-lived wild animal species such as the bonobo. In this study we used sex-linked (mitochondrial DNA sequence and Y-chromosome microsatellite) markers from the same set of individuals to estimate the magnitude of difference in effective dispersal between the sexes and to investigate the long-term demographic history of bonobos. We sampled 34 males from four distinct geographical areas across the bonobo distribution range. As predicted for a female-dispersing species, we found much higher levels of differentiation among local bonobo populations based upon Y-chromosomal than mtDNA genetic variation. Specifically, almost all of the Y-chromosomal variation distinguished populations, while nearly all of the mtDNA variation was shared between populations. Furthermore, genetic distance correlated with geographical distance for mtDNA but not for the Y chromosome. Female bonobos have a much higher migration rate and/or effective population size as compared to males, and the estimate for the mitochondrial TMRCA (time to most recent common ancestor) was approximately 10 times greater than the estimate for the Y chromosome (410 000 vs. 40 000–45 000). For humans the difference is merely a factor of two, suggesting a more stable demographic history in bonobos in comparison to humans.

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