The global migration patterns of the fungal wheat pathogen Phaeosphaeria nodorum were analysed using 12 microsatellite loci. Analysis of 693 isolates from nine populations indicated that the population structure of P. nodorum is characterized by high levels of genetic diversity and a low degree of subdivision between continents. To determine whether genetic similarity of populations was a result of recent divergence or extensive gene flow, the microsatellite data were analysed using an isolation-with-migration model. We found that the continental P. nodorum populations diverged recently, but that enough migration occurred to reduce population differentiation. The migration patterns of the pathogen indicate that immigrants originated mainly from populations in Europe, China and North America.