To fully understand the contemporary genetic structure of plants, both nuclear and plastid markers are needed. Three chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) lineages, which probably diverged before the major Pleistocene glaciations, have been identified in the circumpolar/circumboreal Vaccinium uliginosum. Here we investigate its nuclear DNA variation using nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences, DNA ploidy level measurements and amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). We also extend the cpDNA dataset. Two ITS lineages, corresponding to diploids and tetraploids, respectively, were identified. However, both main sequence types apparently occurred in most individual plants but showed ploidy-biased homogenization and possibly reflect paralogy predating the origin of V. uliginosum. The ploidy levels were largely consistent with the cpDNA lineages, suggesting that the initial cpDNA divergence followed early polyploidizations. Five main AFLP groups were identified, consistent with recent glacial refugia in Beringia, western Siberia, the southern European mountains and areas south/east of the Scandinavian and Laurentide ice sheets. Except from the southern European mountains, there has been extensive expansion from all refugia, resulting in several contact zones. Surprisingly, the presumably older ploidy and cpDNA patterns were partly inconsistent with the main AFLP groups and more consistent with AFLP subgroups. A likely major driver causing the inconsistencies is recent nuclear gene flow via unreduced pollen from diploids to tetraploids. This may prevent cytoplasmic introgression and result in overlayed patterns formed by processes dominating at different time scales. The data also suggest more recent polyploidizations, as well as several chloroplast capture events, further complicating this scenario. This study highlights the importance of combining different marker systems to unravel intraspecific histories.