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Fig. S1 Phylogenetic relationships among the 20 cpDNA haplotypes in Vaccinium uliginosum (strict consensus based on 18 equally most parsimonious trees). Numbers above branches indicate jackknife support values. Haplotypes associated with other ploidy levels than the main ploidy level of the lineage are indicated in parentheses (* denote unknown ploidy level).

Fig. S2 Summary of structure analyses based on AFLP multilocus phenotypes of 958 plants of Vaccinium uliginosum. Number of clusters K was varied from 2 to 20 in 10 independent runs. (a) Mean ln probability of the data for each K. Error bars indicate standard deviation. (b) ΔK calculated according to Evanno et al. (2005).

Fig. S3 Summary of separate structure analyses of each of the five main Structure groups found in Vaccinium uliginosum. (A) The north European group (B) the Beringian/north Canadian group (C) the Siberian group (D) the east Canadian/Greenlandic group, and (E) the south European group. Three subgroups were chosen for group A, B, D and E (the fourth group indicated in E only contained a couple of individuals). No subgroups were inferred for group C, as the runs for K = 2 were not correlated and K > 4 contained empty groups. Number of clusters K was varied from 1 to 10 in 10 independent runs. Upper graph: Mean ln probability of the data for each K. Error bars indicate standard deviation (SD). Lower graph: ΔK calculated according to Evanno et al. (2005).

Table S1 Variable sites recorded in the trnL-trnF and trnS-trnG cpDNA spacer region in Vaccinium uliginosum. Single-region and combined (two-region) haplotypes are shown, and their relationships are indicated. Number of plants with known ploidy level that also could be associated with a combined haplotype is listed. Nucleotide positions refer to the number of bases from the first position of the region. Outgroups and combined haplotypes A to R are from Alsos et al. (2005).

Table S2 Pairwise hierarchical analysis of molecular variance (amova) of 949 plants of Vaccinium uliginosum between subgroups within the main groups inferred by structure analyses, presented as percentage of variation between groups/percentage of variation among populations within groups. P values for all levels: < 0.001, except for the values obtained in comparisons with the south European (Caucasus) subgroup, as this group only contained one population (marked *). Abbreviations of main group names: Beringian/north Canadian — Ber/N Can; east Canadian/Greenlandic — E Can/Grl; north European — N Eur; south European—S Eur.

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