Get access

Staying out in the cold: glacial refugia and mitochondrial DNA phylogeography in ancient European brown bears

Authors

  • CRISTINA E. VALDIOSERA,

    1. Centro Mixto UCM-ISCIII de Evolución y Comportamiento Humanos, c/Sinesio Delgado 4 Pabellon 14, 28029 Madrid, Spain,
    Search for more papers by this author
  • NURIA GARCÍA,

    1. Centro Mixto UCM-ISCIII de Evolución y Comportamiento Humanos, c/Sinesio Delgado 4 Pabellon 14, 28029 Madrid, Spain,
    2. Departamento de Paleontología, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Facultad de Ciencias Geologicas, Ciudad Universitaria 28040 Madrid, Spain,
    Search for more papers by this author
  • CECILIA ANDERUNG,

    1. Evolutionary Biology Center, Uppsala University, Norbyvägen 18, SE-752 36 Uppsala, Sweden,
    2. Department of Biology, University College London, Wolfson House, 4 Stephenson Way, London NW1 2HE, England, UK,
    Search for more papers by this author
  • LOVE DALÉN,

    1. Centro Mixto UCM-ISCIII de Evolución y Comportamiento Humanos, c/Sinesio Delgado 4 Pabellon 14, 28029 Madrid, Spain,
    2. School of Biological Sciences, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, Surrey TW20 0EX, England, UK,
    Search for more papers by this author
  • EVELYNE CRÉGUT-BONNOURE,

    1. Muséum Requien, 67, rue Joseph Vernet, 84000 Avignon, France,
    Search for more papers by this author
  • RALF-DIETRICH KAHLKE,

    1. Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg, Forschungsstation für Quartärpaläontologie, Am Jarkobskirchhof 4, 99423 Weimar, Germany,
    Search for more papers by this author
  • MATHIAS STILLER,

    1. Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany
    Search for more papers by this author
  • MIKAEL BRANDSTRÖM,

    1. Evolutionary Biology Center, Uppsala University, Norbyvägen 18, SE-752 36 Uppsala, Sweden,
    Search for more papers by this author
  • MARK G. THOMAS,

    1. Department of Biology, University College London, Wolfson House, 4 Stephenson Way, London NW1 2HE, England, UK,
    Search for more papers by this author
  • JUAN LUIS ARSUAGA,

    1. Centro Mixto UCM-ISCIII de Evolución y Comportamiento Humanos, c/Sinesio Delgado 4 Pabellon 14, 28029 Madrid, Spain,
    2. Departamento de Paleontología, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Facultad de Ciencias Geologicas, Ciudad Universitaria 28040 Madrid, Spain,
    Search for more papers by this author
  • ANDERS GÖTHERSTRÖM,

    1. Centro Mixto UCM-ISCIII de Evolución y Comportamiento Humanos, c/Sinesio Delgado 4 Pabellon 14, 28029 Madrid, Spain,
    2. Evolutionary Biology Center, Uppsala University, Norbyvägen 18, SE-752 36 Uppsala, Sweden,
    Search for more papers by this author
  • IAN BARNES

    1. School of Biological Sciences, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, Surrey TW20 0EX, England, UK,
    Search for more papers by this author

Cristina E. Valdiosera, c/Sinesio Delgado No. 4 Pabellon 14. 28029 Madrid, Spain. Fax: +34 91-8222855; E-mail: cvaldiosera@isciii.es

Abstract

Models for the development of species distribution in Europe typically invoke restriction in three temperate Mediterranean refugia during glaciations, from where recolonization of central and northern Europe occurred. The brown bear, Ursus arctos, is one of the taxa from which this model is derived. Sequence data generated from brown bear fossils show a complex phylogeographical history for western European populations. Long-term isolation in separate refugia is not required to explain our data when considering the palaeontological distribution of brown bears. We propose continuous gene flow across southern Europe, from which brown bear populations expanded after the last glaciation.

Ancillary