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Keywords:

  • biological introductions;
  • cryptic invasion;
  • D-loop region;
  • domesticated strains;
  • identification;
  • native strain

Abstract

Wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio) are probably suffering from biological invasions of conspecific domesticated strains. However, such invasions may be largely camouflaged by morphological similarities between introduced and native strains. We conducted a large survey of mitochondrial DNA sequences (complete D-loop region) from 11 localities in Japan. From a total of 166 individuals, 28 haplotypes were determined to fit into six divergent clades. One of the six clades included 19 closely related haplotypes with moderate nucleotide differences; however, the remaining five clades each included either a single haplotype or two almost identical haplotypes. Phylogenetic analysis together with the previously published Eurasian haplotypes further demonstrated that the ‘monotypic’ clades were sisters to various Eurasian lineages, whereas the 19 related haplotypes formed a monophyletic group apart from the whole Eurasian clade. Given their monophyly and genetic diversity, the 19 related haplotypes were thought to originate from the Japanese native strain. Conversely, their phylogenetic affinities to Eurasian lineages and unnaturally low genetic diversities caused the haplotypes of the five monotypic clades to be considered as domesticated strains introduced from Eurasia. These hypotheses were supported by further evidences; i.e. the probable non-native haplotypes were frequently found from Japanese domesticated strains, and the probable native population structure was rescued when the probable non-native haplotypes were excluded from the analyses. This study revealed that almost half or more of the haplotypes in all of the locations studied originated from domesticated strains introduced from Eurasia.