Editorial and Retrospective 2008


State of the Journal

We are pleased to report that Molecular Ecology continues to expand in size and impact. When we wrote this editorial, we were on track to publish 5300 pages in 2007, which represents a greater than 10% increase over the last year and a greater than 50% increase over the past 5 years. This increase in page numbers has been accompanied by an expansion in the number of issues from 12 to 24, as well as an increase in impact factor from 3.01 in 2002 to 4.83 in 2006 (Fig. 1). Molecular Ecology now ranks sixth in impact factor among the 114 journals listed in ISI's Ecology category in 2006, and second among ecology journals that publish primary research results.

Figure 1.

Impact factors for Molecular Ecology over the past 5 years.

Despite changes in our editorial and production staff, publication times at Molecular Ecology continue to be excellent. The time from manuscript receipt to an editorial decision averages 49 days. Our production staff moves accepted manuscripts to Online Early publication in 39–40 days, with the print version appearing approximately 20 days later. We thank journal secretaries, Elinor Smith and Simmoné Fellowes, and production editor, Gillian Carmichael, for their efforts in ensuring that manuscripts are efficiently processed, reviewed, and published.

Editorial Policy

We have implemented several editorial changes to increase the quality and visibility of science published in Molecular Ecology and Molecular Ecology Resources (formerly Molecular Ecology Notes), as well as to more effectively serve the molecular ecology community. We are now publishing a News and Views section edited by Nolan Kane (University of British Columbia). The section highlights papers we consider to be particularly newsworthy. Examples include Rod Peakall's perspective on the many challenges facing students of speciation in orchids, highlighting a recent paper on reproductive isolation between two closely related food-deceptive orchids (Moccia et al. 2007); Jim Moore's discussion of a recent study of inbreeding avoidance and mate choice in elephants (Archie et al. 2007); and Olson and Schaal's perspective on the evolution of vegetatively propagated crops, focusing on a study by (Deputie et al. 2007) that shows how traditional farming practices may promote sexual reproduction and gene flow between wild and cultivated cassava.

In addition to these Perspectives, the News and Views section reports on results from scientific meetings that are likely to be of interest to our readers. These include, for example, Landry and Aubin-Horth's discussion of the concept of ecological gene annotation, in the context of a symposium on Ecological Genomics in May 2007 in Toronto, Canada. We also are experimenting with podcasts of interviews with our authors and editors that can be downloaded for free. Podcasts available so far include an interview with Amy Bouck (Duke University), who discusses her article ‘The molecular ecologist's guide to expressed sequence tags’ (Bouck & Vision 2007), as well as an interview with chief editor L. Rieseberg, who describes a recent research article by his group (Lai et al. 2006) and provides advice on how to get published in Molecular Ecology.

Molecular Ecology continues to be closely linked to its sister journal, Molecular Ecology Resources, which focuses on tools and resources for molecular ecology. The journal's remit includes the development of (i) molecular markers and other genomic resources for nonmodel species; (ii) new molecular and computational methods; and (iii) DNA barcodes, DNA-based taxonomies, and other molecular diagnostic tools.

2007 Molecular Ecology Prize

The 2007 Molecular Ecology Prize was awarded to Pierre Taberlet, a pioneer of phylogeographical studies in plants, particularly in the relation to alpine flora of Europe. He has developed and applied a variety of innovative methods to molecular ecology and added much needed rigour to the field, particularly with respect to data quality. Dr Taberlet also has served as an editor of Molecular Ecology for the past decade. A biography of Dr Taberlet and his contributions to molecular ecology can be found on page 514 of this issue.

Special Issues and Reviews

Each year we identify topics that we think are of interest to our readers and/or that represent important future research directions that we would like to see included in Molecular Ecology. For example, in July 2007 we published a partial special issue on The Genetics of Speciation (see meeting review by Ortiz-Barrientos & Kane 2007). Highlights from the special issue include analyses of the history of divergence that contributed to a famous case of sympatric speciation, the apple maggot fly (Michel et al. 2007), as well as dissection of the genetics of reproductive isolation in rapidly speciating crickets from Hawaii (Shaw et al. 2007). In January 2008, a much larger special issue will be published that derives from a summit on Microevolutionary Change in Human-Altered Environments (see meeting report in Tseng 2007). The summit and special issue were organized by Tom Smith and Louis Bernatchez. Bernatchez also serves as our reviews editor, and he continues to do an excellent job in identifying timely topics for review and in recruiting able authors. Examples of reviews published in 2007 range from ‘Pillars of Hercules: is the Atlantic–Mediterranean transition a phylogeographical break?’ (Patarnello et al. 2007) to ‘SINEs of progress: mobile element applications to molecular ecology’ (Ray 2007) to ‘Statistical analysis of amplified fragment length polymorphism data: a toolbox for molecular ecologists and evolutionists’ (Bonin et al. 2007). We welcome suggestions from our authors and readers regarding subjects that are overdue for review or synthesis or that represent emerging subject areas or subfields that could be featured in special issues.

Fast Track papers

Fast Track papers report on discoveries of exceptional importance, similar to those published in the major weekly journals. As the name of this category suggests, the chief incentive for submitting these papers to Molecular Ecology is that Bob Wayne (our Fast Track Editor) provides a quick editorial decision regarding whether the papers will be reviewed, and then we do best to expedite review and publication if the decision is positive. Also, at our most recent editorial meeting, we decided that all Fast Track papers will be highlighted by perspectives in our News and Views section.

We have been very pleased with the quality of Fast Track papers. Impact factors are approximately twice that of regular articles, and several Fast Track papers have been featured by major weekly journals (e.g. Riley et al. 2006; Strasburg 2006). Major findings reported in from Fast Track papers in 2007 include discovery that the supposed successful recovery of an endangered subspecies of cutthroat trout in the USA has failed because of the systematic misidentification of endangered populations (Metcalf et al. 2007), the demonstration that the adaptive radiation of a freshwater fish genus from Indonesia was initiated by resource partitioning (Roy et al. 2007), and the calculation that — based on molecular marker assays of whale products – close to twice as many whales have been killed over a 5-year period than according to official reports (Baker et al. 2007; Clapham & Van Waerebeek 2007).


Lastly, we wish to express our gratitude to our many referees (listed in Table 1) for the donation of their time to the journal and to the discipline of molecular ecology.


As part of our drive to increase the visibility of the science published in Molecular Ecology, we have expanded our editorial to include a retrospective that highlights important discoveries in molecular ecology in the previous year.

Sympatric speciation

A longstanding debate in evolutionary biology is whether speciation often occurs in the absence of geographical barriers to gene flow (i.e. sympatry). Darwin (1859) viewed speciation as the outcome of competition for resources, which must necessarily occur in sympatry (or parapatry). However, convincing empirical examples are rare, and theoretical studies of the process indicate that the evolutionary conditions required for sympatric speciation are stringent.

In a novel approach to the problem, Gavrilets & Vose (2007) and Gavrilets et al. (2007) ask whether two putative examples of sympatric speciation — cichlids in Lake Apoyo in Nicaragua (Barluenga et al. 2006) and palms from Lord Howe Island (Savolainen et al. 2006) — are theoretically plausible. Gavrilets and coauthors show that fairly rapid sympatric speciation is possible in both cases, although under a restricted set of conditions. These include simple genetic control of the traits involved in habitat adaptation and assortative mating, as well as intermediate selection for local adaptation. Also, the fish speciation event requires that loci influencing assortative mating have strong effects, whereas in the palm example, speciation is aided by an environmental effect on flowering time. The next step is to test these critical parameters empirically.

It is noteworthy that the majority of convincing examples of sympatric speciation involve fishes. Hubert et al. (2007a) provide yet another possible example, this time from the piranha genera Serrasalmus. Although this case is not as fully developed as the cichlid fish example discussed above, phylogeographical studies identified several pairs of sister species that have originated in the same river drainage and appear to represent examples of sympatric speciation.

Climate change

Changes in the earth's climate are predicted to dramatically impact the health and composition of ecological communities worldwide. Organisms may respond to environmental change through migration, plasticity, adaptation, or extinction. As discussed in a cogent review (Reusch & Wood 2007), the field of molecular ecology offers a synthetic approach that considers the interactions between the ecological (migration and plasticity) and evolutionary (adaptation) responses to climate change. This involves characterization of present day diversity of critical ecological communities (e.g. Apprill & Gates 2007; Pfenninger et al. 2007; Pommier et al. 2007; Van Oppen 2007), calculation of migration rates for all kinds of organisms (Byrne et al. 2007; Devaux et al. 2007; Fievet et al. 2007; Garcia et al. 2007; Giordano et al. 2007; Jones et al. 2007; Lukoschek et al. 2007; Richards et al. 2007; Underwood et al. 2007; Vignieri 2007; Watts et al. 2007; Werth et al. 2007), identification of traits that are likely to be under selection during climate change (Chapuis et al. 2007), determination of the genetic basis and heritability of these traits (Brock et al. 2007; Kassahn et al. 2007; Norry et al. 2007; Rako et al. 2007), and estimation of the effects of habitat fragmentation on the rate of adaptation (Ficetola et al. 2007; Johansson et al. 2007). Also, analyses of organismal responses to previous bouts of climate change (Brito 2007; Crottini et al. 2007; Hoarau et al. 2007; Naciri & Gaudeul 2007; Parisod & Besnard 2007) provide a means of predicting future responses.

Inbreeding vs. outbreeding depression

An important question in conservation biology is whether endangered populations have more to fear from inbreeding depression (the lost of fitness as a result of breeding among closely related individuals) than outbreeding depression (the loss of fitness due to breeding among distantly related individuals). In a review of this question (Edmands 2007) argues that while there is more evidence for the former, the loss of fitness from outbreeding depression may be comparable in magnitude to that resulting from inbreeding depression. However, there is a surprising paucity of data concerning outbreeding depression, particularly in later generation hybrids. Indeed, most studies of conservation-related consequences of hybridization have focused on the problem of genetic assimilation rather than outbreeding depression. Examples of rare taxa in danger of genetic assimilation include Spanish white-headed ducks (Munoz-Fuentes et al. 2007), red wolves (Adams et al. 2007), and golden-winged warblers (Vallender et al. 2007).

With respect to inbreeding depression, several studies published in Molecular Ecology in 2007 have analysed the effects of population bottlenecks on genetic variability. For example, an analysis of genetic variability in peregrine falcons (Brown et al. 2007) failed to find the signature of a genetic bottleneck, despite a devastating decline in population size during mid-20th century due to the bioaccumulation of organochlorine contaminants. Brown et al. attributed the lack of long-term genetic damage to rapid and effective recovery efforts. Likewise, researchers failed to detect molecular evidence of a bottleneck in kangaroo rats (Busch et al. 2007) and greater prairie-chickens (Johnson et al. 2007b), despite known reductions in population size. In contrast, genetic variation was found to be greatly reduced in the European bison and banteng cattle (Bradshaw et al. 2007; Radwan et al. 2007), both of which have experienced extreme bottlenecks: current populations derive from just a handful of founders. Finally, Hughes & Hughes (2007) attributed reductions in nucleotide sequence diversity at mitochondrial protein-coding loci in birds to population bottleneck effects during the most recent glaciations. The take home message from these studies is that population bottlenecks are unlikely to significantly affect genetic diversity unless they are severe or extend over very long time periods.

In the two studies that tested for correlations between heterozygosity and traits associated with fitness, inbreeding depression was found to be environment and trait dependent. For example, reduced heterozygosity was found to reduce clutch size, but not egg volume in a wild population of lesser kestrels (Ortego et al. 2007). Likewise, maternal, but not paternal, multilocus heterozygosity was positively associated with offspring survival in Seychelles warbler, but only in years with low survival probabilities (Brouwer et al. 2007).

Invasive species

Invasive species pose a major burden on the world's economy. Invading nonindigenous species lower crop yield, cause human disease, destroy stored food, kill livestock and timber, reduce the quality of rangeland, aquatic, and forest environments, clog water intake pipes and water filtration systems, and lead to the expenditure of billions of dollars in chemical and biological control measures. Besides direct economic costs, invasive species threaten biodiversity and the functioning of ecosystems, rivalling habitat loss in their destructive effect. Molecular ecological approaches provide information on the genetic identity of invasive populations (Drescher et al. 2007), where they came from (Kauserud et al. 2007b; Zhou et al. 2007), their evolutionary histories (Aketarawong et al. 2007; Herborg et al. 2007; Mock et al. 2007; Stone et al. 2007), patterns of hybridization with native species or other alien taxa (Gonthier et al. 2007; Kolbe et al. 2007), and even the genetic changes that underlie adaptation to disturbed habitats (Kane & Rieseberg in press). This basic information is required for effective management of invasive species. In addition, genomic studies conducted in ecological settings may provide information on how certain genetic changes contribute to invasiveness and the ecological contexts of these effects.

Cryptic species

Species inventories and assessment of species numbers play a crucial role in the conservation and management of biodiversity, as well as in studies of ecosystem function, community ecology, biogeography, phylogeny, and evolution. Molecular approaches, such as molecular phylogenetics, barcoding, DNA taxonomy, and molecular phylogeography, are playing an increasingly important role in quantifying organismal diversity, in part because of their ability to detect cryptic biological species. In 2007, new cryptic species were reported in rhodophyte seaweeds (Andreakis et al. 2007), trapdoor spiders (Stockman & Bond 2007), Dioryctria moths (Roe & Sperling 2007), cellar fungi (Kauserud et al. 2007a), mygalomorph spiders (Starrett & Hedin 2007), acanthocephalan parasites (Steinauer et al. 2007), freshwater crayfish (Apte et al. 2007), subterranean amphipods (Finston et al. 2007), and Lycaena butterflies (Oliver & Shapiro 2007).

Fig wasps

Figs and the wasps that pollinate them provide a high-profile example of an obligate insect–plant mutualism and possibly of strict-sense cospeciation. However, a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the five genera of fig wasps indicates that wasps not only switch between different host species, but that most host trees are pollinated by multiple wasp species (Marussich & Machado 2007). These results imply that previous assertions of strict codivergence are invalid.

Evolution and speciation in the Hawaiian silverword alliance

The Hawaiian silverword alliance consists of 28 species and three genera (Dubautia, Argyroxiphium, and Wilksia) endemic to Hawaii. Although all 28 species appear to have arisen from a single mainland ancestor, they exhibit spectacular morphological and ecological diversity. The group includes rosette plants, cushion plants, subshrubs, shrubs, trees, and vines. Moreover, they occur in nearly all of the island habitats, ranging from sea level to alpine habitats, and wet tropical to desert-like conditions. So impressive is the broad array of morphological, anatomical and eco-physiological traits required for success in these habitats, that Carlquist (1974) referred to the silversword alliance as ‘undoubtedly the most outstanding example of adaptive radiation among Hawaiian angiosperms.

In the first issue of October 2007, three different kinds of molecular markers, each with different evolutionary rates, were employed to analyse the effects on gene flow on the differentiation of two sister species of Dubautia through time (Friar et al. 2007; Lawton-Rauh et al. 2007a, b; Remington & Robichaux 2007). While analyses of microsatellite data suggest that contemporary gene flow is minimal, analyses of AFLP markers, as well as sequence data from a structural gene, imply differential gene flow among loci going back to the earliest stages of differentiation. These results not only demonstrate the power of using multiple kinds of molecular markers for analyses of gene flow through time, but they also show that adaptive radiation can occur despite significant gene exchange between diverging populations.

Gene flow

A major question in molecular ecology concerns the relative importance of divergent natural selection vs. physical barriers or distance in limiting gene flow. In most studies that addressed this issue in 2007, genetic differentiation was found to be correlated with a physical barrier or with geographical distance (e.g. Barbara et al. 2007a; Brouat et al. 2007; Buschbom 2007; Calderon et al. 2007; Drummond & Hamilton 2007; Ekblom et al. 2007; Fievet et al. 2007; Friesen et al. 2007; Grundmann et al. 2007; Hubert et al. 2007b; Johnson et al. 2007a; Liu et al. 2007; Mitrovski et al. 2007; Mora et al. 2007; Perez-Losada et al. 2007; Price et al. 2007; Spellman et al. 2007; Werth et al. 2007). In contrast, in only a handful of cases did natural selection appeared to be a more likely cause of population structure than geography (Angelone et al. 2007; Hemmer-Hansen et al. 2007; Reyes et al. 2007).

We owe a debt of gratitude to the large number of individuals who have contributed to the discipline of molecular ecology by reviewing manuscripts for the journal. The following list consists of people who reviewed papers between 1 November 2006 and 31 October 2007

Duur K. Aanen

Cathryn L Abbott

Cathryn L. Abbott

Karina Acevedo-Whitehouse

Sarah J. Adamowicz

Jennifer R. Adams

Greg Adcock

Alex Aebi

Laurence Affre

Andres Aguilar

Nuria Agusti

Dag Ahren

Malika Ainouche

Sally Aitken

Mikael Akesson

Dirk Albach

Arianne Albert

James Albert

Preston R. Aldrich

Alexandre Aleixo

A. C. Allan

Mark W. Allard

Fred W. Allendorf

Deryn Alpers

Inger Alsos

David Althoff

Jeanne Altmann

John Altringham

Ines Alvarez

Nadir Alvarez

Bill Amos

Liselotte W. Andersen

Robert Anderson

Timothy J. C. Anderson

Kirk Anderson

Jan Andersson

Nikos Andreakis

Bernard Angers

Nicola Anthony

Michael F. Antolin

Agostinho Antunes

Brian S. Arbogast

Elizabeth A. Archie

Sergio Arcioni

Paul Arens

Sophie Arnaud

Sophie Arnaud-Haond

Miquel A. Arnedo

Arthur Arnold

Mike Arnold

J. W. Arntzen

Serge Aron

Mary Ashley

Didier Aurelle

Frederic Austerlitz

James D. Austin

Jeremy Austin

John Avise

Philip Awadalla

Nadia A. Ayoub

David J. Ayre

Eric Baack

Wieslaw Babik

Lutz Bachmann

Niclas Backstrom

Cecile F. E. Bacles

Charles Baer

X. Bailly

John F. Bain

C. Scott Baker

Andrew Baker

Allan J. Baker

Christopher N. Balakrishnan

Laura Baldo

N. Balkenhol

M. C. Ball

R. K. Bangert

Michael A. Banks

Thelma Barbara

Paul H. Barber

Alan G. Barbour

D. Barker

J. Stuart F. Barker

Marta Barluenga

Ian Barnes

T. G. Barraclough

Luke Barrett

Spencer C. H. Barrett

Detlef Bartsch

Thomas Bataillon

John M. Bates

Alex Baumel

P. R. Baverstock

Yolanda Bayon

Marco Bazzicalupo

Mark Beaumont

Stephanie Bedhomme

Trevor Beebee

Peter Beerli

Luciano B. Beheregaray

Susanta Behura

Albano Beja-Pereira

Dorte Bekkevold

Mike Bell

Gilles Bena

Craig W. Benkman

Paul Bentzen

Mary L. Berbee

Thomas Berendonk

E. C. Berg

Thore Bergman

S. A. Berkeley

Stewart Berlocher

Giacomo Bernardi

Louis Bernatchez

Louis Bernier

Patrick Berrebi

Oliver Berry

Karine Berthier

Giorgio Bertorelle

S. M. Bertram

Nora J. Besansky

Guillaume Besnard

Punyasloke Bhadury

John W. Bickham

Martin I. Bidartondo

Christine Biermann

David Bignell

Kuke Bijlsma

Francoise Binet

Greta Binford

Christopher Bird

T. R. Birkhead

C. William Birky

John Bishop

C. Bittkau

C. B. Blackwood

Jonathan Blais

Paul J. Blanchfield

Julie Blanchong

Frank Blattner

W. Bleeker

Donald Blomqvist

Michael Blouin

Mark Blows

S. L. Bonatto

Jason Bond

Francois Bonhomme

Aurélie Bonin

Camille Bonneaud

Cyril Bontemps

R. Bontrop

Jacobus J. Boomsma

Mike Boots

Seth R. Bordenstein

Thomas Borge

Philippe Borsa

Elizabeth Boulding

Marylène Boulet

Jérôme Bourjea

Andrew Bourke

Pierre Boursot

Jean Bousquet

Stan Boutin

Jean-Marc Bouvet

Juan L. Bouzat

Brian W. Bowen

Rauri Bowie

Caren Braby

Dan Bradley

Evan Braswell

Felix Breden

Antonio Brehm

Adrian Brennan

Amanda Bretman

Jim Briskie

Patrícia Brito

Christian Brochmann

Butch Brodie

Thomas Broquet

Carine Brouat

Andrew V. Z. Brower

Bonnie L. Brown

William D. Brown

Richard P. Brown

Joseph Brown

Mike Bruford

Robb T. Brumfield

Anne Bruneau

Ivano Brunner

Patrick Brunner

Tom Bruns

Enrique Bucher

Thomas Buckley

C. Alex Buerkle

Vincent P. Buonaccorsi

Christian Burban

Theresa Burg

Jutta Burger

Chris Burridge

Austin Burt

Ronald S. Burton

Roger Butlin

Margaret Byrne

Armando Caballero

Joanne Cable

Gisella Caccone

Sara Cahan

Ana L. Caicedo

Alain Caizergues

Federico C. Calboli

Hilary Callahan

Ryan Calsbeek

Daniele Canestrelli

Michael A. Cant

Matthew D. Carling

C. Martin Carlsson

Jens Carlsson

G. D. Carr

Bryan C. Carstens

Gary R. Carvalho

Ricardo Castiglia

Vincent Castric

Francesco Catania

Ivania Ceron-Souza

Mark A. Chapman

Robert Chapman

Michel Chapuisat

Nathalie Charbonnel

Deborah Charlesworth

Marie Charpentier

Chaolun Allen Chen

James Cheverud

Christine Chevillon

Tzen-Yuh Chiang

Satoshi Chiba

Lounes Chikhi

Philippe Christe

Myong Gi Chung

Rossella Cianchi

Alice Cibois

Claudio Ciofi

James S. Clark

Maria J. Clauss

Sonya M. Clegg

John Colbourne

Chris Cole

Annette Coleman

Rosane Collevatti

Tony Collins

Isabelle Colson

David Coltman

Mario Coluzzi

Hans Peter Comes

Cyrille Conord

Chris J. Conroy

Elena Conti

David Cooke

Alan Cooper

Stephen J. B. Cooper

T. Coppack

Jukka Corander

Jean-François Cosson

Caroline Costedoat

Joan Cottrell

Aurélie Coulon

Salvatore Cozzolino

K. J. Craft

Matthew Craig

Keith A. Crandall

Douglas Crawford

Terry Crawford

Simon Creer

Sarah C. Crews

Charles Criscione

Erika Crispo

Melania A. E. Cristescu

Pierre-Andre Crochet

Nils Cronberg

Timothy M. Crowe

G. M. Crutsinger

Mitch Cruzan

Kati Csillery

Joel Cuguen

Theresa M. Culley

Mark A. Culling

Melanie Culver

Andrew Cuming

Cliff Cunningham

Janelle Curtis

Samuel A. Cushman

V. Cuvillier-Hot

Philip Daborn

Anders Dahlberg

Merel L. Dalebout

Ambroise Dalecky

Love Dalen

Love Dalén

John F. Dallas

Robert Danka

Kate Darling

Patrice David

Jerrold Davis

Angus Davison

Mike N. Dawson

Troy Day

Gerdien de Jong

Luc De Meester

Thierry De Meeus

Jaap de Roode

Bruce E. Deagle

Matthew D. Dean

Ellen Decaestecker

Eric G. DeChaine

Valérie Y. Deffontaine

Bernd Degen

Hélène Delatte

John R. Demboski

Nicolas Derome

Sofie Derycke

Robert Desalle

Henri Descimon

Yves Desdevises

Laurence Despres

Jeremy Dettman

Céline Devaux

Andrew DeWoody

Randy W. DeYoung

Anthony Di Fiore

Christopher W. Dick

Thorsten Diegisser

Todd R. Disotell

Albert David Ditchfield

Christopher Dixon

Katrina Dlugosch

Ignacio Doadrio

Stephen Dobson

Margaret F. Docker

Richard S. Dodd

Julian Dodson

Gaynor Dolman

Patrick Doncaster

Steve Donnellan

Erik Dopman

Michael E. Douglas

Marlis R. Douglas

Greg Douhan

Sophie Dove

Douglas A. Downie

Joshua Drew

Don A. Driscoll

Alexei Drummond

Pierre Duchesne

Thomas F. Duda

France Dufresne

Jean-Pierre Dujardin

Sylvie Dumolin-Lapegue

Stéphane Dupas

Sandra Duran

Jean-Dominique Durand

Walter Durka

Olivier Duron

Cyril Dutech

David Duvernell

Rodney J. Dyer

Walter Eanes

Tony Echelle

Craig Echt

Christopher Eckert

Lutz Eckstein

Cécile Edelist

Suzanne Edmands

Scott V. Edwards

Luis E. Eguiarte

Friedrich Ehrendorfer

Dorothee Ehrich

Eduardo Eizirik

Stefan Ekman

Willy Eldridge

Hans Ellegren

Jennifer Ellis

Norman Ellstrand

Simon Ellwood

Nancy Endersby

George Engelhard

Philip England

Jérôme J. Enjalbert

Jürg Enkerli

Richard Ennos

Bryan K. Epperson

Clinton Epps

Mark Erdmann

Bente Eriksen

Holly B. Ernest

Arnaud Estoup

Guillaume Evanno

Adam Eyre-Walker

Sylvia Fallon

Daniel Falush

Denis Fargette

Laura E. Farrell

Cécile Fauvelot

Michael Fay

Jeff Feder

Martin Feder

Vadim B. Fedorov

Judith Fehrer

Chris Feldman

Gonzalo Nieto Feliner

Tom Fenchel

Juan Fernandez

Nuno Ferrand

David Field

Christian C. Figueroa

Dmitri Filatov

Paul Fine

Reiner Finkeldey

Debra Finn

Terrie L. Finston

Diana Fisher

Lila Fishman

William Fitt

Nancy Fitzsimmons

Oystein Flagstad

Nicola S. Flanagan

Ian Fleming

Susanne Foitzik

D. G. Folk

Andrew Forbes

Stephen Forbes

Bruce Ford

Michael J. Ford

Par Forslund

Peter Forster

Mike Forstner

Marie-Josee Fortin

Kevin R. Foster

S. A. Foster

William Foster

Olivier François

Richard Frankham

Adrien Frantz

Alain C. Frantz

Dylan Fraser

Richard J. Fredrickson

Ruth Freeman

Pascal Frey

Vicki Friesen

Uwe Fritz

Remy Froissart

Bryan Grieg Fry

Hironobu Fukami

Luca Fumagalli

Daniel J. Funk

Douglas J. Futuyma

Tove M. Gabrielsen

Patrick Gaffney

Oscar E. Gaggiotti

Kurt Galbreath

Heather Galindo

Laura Galloway

Hannes Gamper

Washington J. Gapare

Dany Garant

Matteo Garbelotto

Christina Garcia

Fernando Garcia Arenal

Mario Garcia-Paris

Keith Gardner

Shawn Garner

Trent W. J. Garner

Stéphane Garnier

Pauline Garnier-Gere

Ryan C. Garrick

John Carlos Garza

Ruth Gates

Myriam Gaudeul

Brandon S. Gaut

Laurène L. Gay

Song Ge

Eli Geffen

David Geiser

Jonathan B. Geller

József Geml

Neil Gemmell

Martin J. Genner

Paul Gepts

Pierre Gerard

Sophie Gerber

Roberto Geremia

Gabriele Gerlach

A. J. Gharrett

A. J. Gharrett

H. Lisle Gibbs

Y. Gibon

Robert Gibson

Wendy Gibson

Luis Gil

Andre S. Gilburn

Barbara Giles

Rosemary G. Gillespie

Tatiana Giraud

Derek Girman

Richard Glor

Ana Goios

John R. Gold

Caren Goldberg

Sharyn Goldstien

Africa Gomez

Jesus Gomez-Zurita

Eva B. Gonzales

S. C. Gonzalez-Martinez

J. M. Good

Sara Goodacre

Michael A. D. Goodisman

Simon J. Goodman

Benoit Goossens

David Gopurenko

Jaime Gosalvez

Elizabeth Gosling

Thierry Gosselin

Marc Gottschling

Jerome Goudet

Tamar L. Goulet

Jennifer L. Gow

Alan Grafen

Catherine H. Graham

John Grahame

Mats Grahn

W. Stewart Grant

Alessandro Grapputo

Jeff Graves

John E. Graves

Peter Gravlund

David M. Green

Matthew H. Greenstone

Alex Greenwood

T. Ryan Gregory

Josef Greimler

Simon Griffith

Georgianne Griffiths

Andrea Grill

Delphine Grivet

Jim Groombridge

Richard K. Grosberg

Briana Gross

Riho Gross

Colin Groves

Felix Gugerli

Alice Guidot

Guillermo Guillermo

Gilles Guillot

Bruno Guinand

Bernhard Gum

Pushpendra Kumar Gupta

Jarrod Hadfield

Bernd Haenfling

Susan M. Haig

R. S. Hails

Marie L. Hale

Richard C. Hamelin

Ruth Hamill

Matt Hamilton

J. P. Hammond

Rob Hammond

Arndt Hampe

Jim Hamrick

Robert Haney

Catherine Hanni

Haakon Hansen

Bengt Hansson

Alistaire Harborne

Ian Hardy

Matthew P Hare

E. Harley

Luke Harmon

G. L. Harper

Bettina Harr

D. James Harris

Richard G. Harrison

Miriam Harry

Adam Hart

Guenthur Hartl

James D. Harwood

Heide Hauffe

Thure Pavlo Hauser

Lorenz Hauser

J. Susanne Hauswaldt

Dana Hawley

Sean Hayes

Alexander Hayward

Daniel D. Heath

Paul D. N. Hebert

David Heckel

Gerald Heckel

Marshal C. Hedin

Philip W. Hedrick

Jeffrey Heilveil

Berthold Heinze

Jurgen Heinze

Edward J. Heist

Michael E. Hellberg

Olof I. Hellgren

Jakob Hemmer-Hansen

Andrew P. Hendry

Tom Herman

C. Hermans

D. O. Hessen

Myriam Heuertz

Godfrey M. Hewitt

Jody Hey

S. Hiendleder

Malcolm Hill

David Hillis

Kjetil Hindar

Gavin Hinten

Helen Hipperson

K. Hoare

Scott Hodges

Kathryn Hodgins

Toby Hodgkin

Susan Hoebee

Bert Hoeksema

Elvira Hoerandl

Ary A. Hoffman

Eric A. Hoffman

Joe Hoffman

Ary Hoffmann

Michael Hofreiter

Nils Hogberg

Jacob Hoglund

Ramiro Morales Hojas

Rolf Holderegger

Brenden S. Holland

Johan Hollander

Pete Hollingsworth

Kent Holsinger

Ben Holt

Tim Holtsford

Marlijn Hoogendoorn

David Hopkins

Elvira Hörandl

Inaki Hormaza

Conrad J. Hoskin

Daniel J. Howard

Dianella Howarth

Feng Sheng Hu

Nicolas Hubert

Matthew Hudson

Peter Huemer

Jane M. Hughes

William O. H. Hughes

Colin R. Hughes

Austin Hughes

Michael Huhndorf

Josh M. Hull

P. Hulva

David A. Hurwood

Jeff Hutchings

W. F. Hutchinson

Kamal M. Ibrahim

Roberto Iglesias-Prieto

Juan Carlos Illera

Eric Imbert

Darren Irwin

Nathalie Isabel

K. Ishida

K. Isvaran

Maarit Jaarola

Jennifer Jackson

David Jacobs

Hans Jacquemyn

Ian Jamieson

Kirstin Janssen

Juan P. Jaramillo-Correa

Philippe Jarne

Susan I. Jarvi

Pia Jarvinen

Devra I. Jarvis

Robert Jehle

Eric Jenczewski

Bryan Jennings

Michael Jennions

Lasse Fast Jensen

Chris Jiggins

Francis Jiggins

Maria del Mar Jimenez-Gasco

Jes Johannesen

Kerstin Johannesson

Mattias Johansson

A. Johnsen

Jeff A. Johnson

Jerald B. Johnson

Kevin P. Johnson

Michael S. Johnson

Paul C. D. Johnson

S. G. Johnson

Warren Johnson

Jukka Jokela

Didier Jollivet

Clifford Jolly

Adam G. Jones

Andy Jones

F. A. Jones

Megan E. Jones

Stéphane Joost

Bjarte Jordal

William C. Jordan

Per Erik Jorde

Rikke Bagger Jorgensen

Carlos Juan

A. Juen

Alistair Jump

Ari Jumpponen

Edouard Jurkevitch

Joachim W. Kadereit

Susan Kalisz

Nolan Kane

Maaria Kankare

Peter Kappeler

Maxim Kapralov

Sten Karlsson

Sophie Karrenberg

Takao Kasuga

Shuri Kato

A. D. Kay

Michael Kearney

Devon Keeney

Dean G. Kelch

Laurent Keller

David Kelly

Bert Kempenaers

Ellen Kenchington

Martyn Kennedy

J. Scott Keogh

Gavin Kernaghan

Gerald Kerth

Nusha Keyghobadi

David Kidd

M. Kilpatrick

Mari Kimura

Tim King

Michael T. Kinnison

Lisa A. Kirkendale

Finn Kjellberg

Etienne Klein

J. T. Klicka

Richard M. Kliman

L. Lacey Knowles

Marcus Koch

Marc Kochzius

Wolfgang Koehler

Barbara Koenig

Michael Kohn

Joshua Kohn

Jason Kolbe

Helena Korpelainen

Petr Kotlik

Ingrid Kottke

E. Koutsos

Paula X. Kover

Kenneth Kozak

Daniel J. C. Kronauer

Marcus R. Kronforst

Matthias Kropf

Konstantin Krutovsky

Ralph Kuehn

Mary K. Kuhner

Helmi Kuittinen

Satish Kumar

Anders Kvarnheden

Laura Kvist

Christopher J. Kyle

David Laloi

Gretchen Lambert

Melanie Lancaster

Rus Lande

Urs Landergott

Christian Landry

Jeffrey Lane

Tracy Langkilde

Gregory C. Lanzaro

Carlo Largiader

Allan Larson

Greger Larson

Emily Latch

Amparo Latorre

Robert G. Latta

S. Lavergne

Shane Lavery

Lori Lawson-Handley

Amy Lawton-Rauh

Scott Layne

Brian P. Lazzaro

Valérie Le Corre

Jean Francois Le Galliard

Jaco Le Roux

Adam Leache

Paul Leberg

Raphael Leblois

Roberta Lecis

Frederic Lecomte

F. T. Ledig

Caroll Lee

Kelly Lee

Patricia L. M. Lee

James Leebens-Mack

David Lees

Laurent Lehmann

Roosa Leimu

Ylva Lekberg

J. A. Lenstra

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H. Lessios

Eric Liebgold

Jan T. Lifjeld

Erik Lilleskov

Mauricio Linares

Celeste Linde

H. Peter Linder

Anna Lindholm

Catherine Linnen

Bodo Linz

Adrian Lister

Aaron Liston

T. J. Little

Jianquan Liu

Tanya Llorens

Volker Loeschcke

Bette Loiselle

Jeff Long

Hernan Lopez-Fernandez

Susanna Lopez-Legentil

R. Lorenzini

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Milton Love

Nathan R. Lovejoy

Irby J. Lovette

Andrew Lowe

C. D. Lowe

Jeffery Lozier

C. Lucas

Nicolas Lugon-Moulin

Paul Lukacs

Dieter Lukas

David H. Lunt

Barbara Mable

Beth MacDougall-Shackleton

Milos Macholan

Annie Machordom

Richard Mack

Thomas Madsen

Gregory E. Maes

Sara Magalhaes

Christine A. Maggs

R. Mahalingham

Hannu Mäkinen

Gaynor Malloch

Carolyn M. Malmstrom

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F. Manni

Paul Manos

Mark Maraun

Patrick Mardulyn

Stephanie Mariette

Jeff Markert

Therese Ann Markow

Josep Marmi

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Tristan C. Marshall

Andrew P. Martin

Steven Martin

Santiago Gonzalez Martinez

Wendy Marussich

Xulio Maside

Brian Masters

Brandon Matheny

Peter Mather

Lauren M. Mathews

Marjorie D. Matocq

Jennifer Matos

Margarida Matos

Rodney Mauricio

J. Mavarez

Andrew McAdam

Bryant McAllister

Scott McCairns

Karen D. McCoy

Stuart McDaniel

David B. McDonald

Elizabeth McGraw

J. S. McKinnon

W. Owen McMillan

Brad H. McRae

Thomas R. Meagher

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Mariah Meek

Patrick Meirmans

Tamra C. Mendelson

Joachim Mergeay

Juha Merila

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Sarah Mesnick

Johan R. Michaux

Ellinor Michel

Borja Mila

Michael Miles

Manfred Milinski

Allison Miller

Kristina M. Miller

Mark P. Miller

Thomas Miller

Brook G. Milligan

L. Scott Mills

Richard I. Milne

Emmanuel Milot

Yuki Minegishi

M. M. Miretti

Patricia Mirol

Jeremy Mitchell

Thomas Mitchell-Olds

Jeff Mitton

M. M. Miyamoto

Karen E. Mock

Stefano Mona

Matías Sebastián Mora

Nancy Moran

Paul Moran

Serge Morand

T. J. Morgan

Mary Morgan-Richards

Phillip A. Morin

Craig Moritz

Robin F. A. Moritz

Carrie L. Morjan

Andres Moya

Robert Moyle

Leonie Moyle

Gregory Mueller

Graham Muir

Sean Mullen

Connie Mulligan

Peter J. Mumby

Miguel Munguira

Violeta Munoz-Fuentes

Melanie Murphy

Marko Mutanen

Yamama Naciri

Steve Nadler

Russell Naisbit

Dan Neafsey

Bryan D. Neff

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Maurine Neiman

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Barbara Neuffer

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Caroline M. J. Nieberding

Einar E. Nielsen

Gonzalo Nieto

Les R. Noble

Sarah Noel

Arne Nolte

Peter Nonacs

Mohammed Noor

Magnus Nordborg

Patrik Nosil

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Daniel Nussey

Hilde Nybom

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Philip O’Brien

MA O’Connell

Sylvie Oddou-Muratorio

Kerry O'Donnell

Rob Ogden

Bob O’Hara

Kazusato Ohshima

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Kenneth M. Olsen

Mats Olsson

Lino Ometto

Dave P. Onorato

Patrick T. O’Reilly

Daniel Ortiz-Barrientos

Kitade Osamu

Tatsuo Oshida

Kjartan Ostbye

Jennifer R. Ovenden

Andrew Overall

Harry Palm

Stefan Palm

Per J. Palsboll

Pekka Pamilo

Marina Panova

Linda Park

Matt Parker

Christopher L. Parkinson

Jeri Parrent

Kim M. Parsons

Marta Pascual

Adrian Paterson

Steve Paterson

Francesco Paolo Patti

Jim L. Patton

Octavio S. Paulo

Greg Pauly

Ovidiu Paun

Robert J. Paxton

Sylvie Pazoutova

Mary M. Peacock

Rod Peakall

Jes S. Pedersen

Giuseppe Pellegrino

Fanie Pelletier

Josephine Pemberton

Toby Pennington

Diane Percy

Javier Perez-Tris

Oliver R. W. Pergams

Nicolas Perrin

Marie-Jeanne Perrot-Minnot

Eric Petit

Kenneth Petren

Markus Pfenninger

Michael E. Pfrender

Albert Phillimore

Mark S. Phillips

J. Jaroslav Pialek

Stuart B. Piertney

Maxine P. Piggott

Małgorzata Pilot

M. Pineda-Krch

Catarina Pinho

Trevor Pitcher

Olivier Plantard

Andrea Pluess

Grant H. Pogson

Hendrik N. Poinar

Jocelyn Poissant

Martin Polz

Paddy Pomeroy

Francois Pompanon

V. V. Pop

Lisa C. Pope

E. Porcher

Adam H. Porter

Erik Postma

Robert Poulin

Nina Aa. Poulsen

Wayne Powell

Daniel Prati

Craig Primmer

Christian Printzen

Gabriele Procaccini

Jim Provan

Franck Prugnolle

Joe M. Quattro

A. D. Queiroz

David C. Queller

Mauricio Quesada

Joost A. M. Raeymaekers

Lászlo Rákosy

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Marina Ramon

Cadhla Ramsden

David Rand

Ettore Randi

Olivier Raspe

Jean-Yves Rasplus

Paul D. Rawson

David A. Ray

Michel Raymond

Olivier Raymond

Paul Ready

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Denis Réale

V. Reeb

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David L. Reed

Todd W. Reeder

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Martin Reichard

Jay Reichman

David Remington

Manuel Reudi

Thorsten B. H. Reusch

Max Reuter

Philippe Reymond

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Olin E. Rhodes

Chris M. Richards

Cristina Richards

Bryce A. Richardson

David Richardson

David S. Richardson

Ciro Rico

Brett R. Riddle

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Cynthia Riginos

Claude Rispe

Leslie Rissler

Kermit Ritland

Park Robert

Thierry Robert

Charles Robin

Stacie Robinson

John Robinson

Juan Robledo-Arnuncio

Luiz A. Rocha

Axayacatl Rocha-Olivares

Matt Rockman

Marion Röder

Mauricio Rodriguez-Lanetty

Derek Roff

Jeff Rogers

Scott O. Rogers

Sean Rogers

Antonis Rokas

Joe Roman

David A. Roon

Patricia Rosel

P. A. Rosenbaum

Erica Rosenblum

Soren Rosendahl

Josep A. Rossello

Stephen Rossiter

K. E. Rotenberry

V. Louise Roth

Kevin Rowe

Kaustuv Roy

Manuel Ruedi

Claus Rueffler

Minna Ruokonen

A. F. Russell

Michael A. Russello

Daniel Ruzzante

Oliver A. Ryder

Ilik J. Saccheri

Benjamin N. Sacks

Glenn-Peter Saetre

Walter Salzburger

Sarah Samadi

Ian Sanders

C. P. Sandoval

Isabel Sanmartin

Scott Ross Santos

Thomas W. Sappington

Pierre Saumitou-Laprade

Outi Savolainen

Martin Schaefer

J. J. Schall

Helmut Schaschl

Christoph Scheidegger

Tanja Scheublin

Kristina A. Schierenbeck

Birgit C. Schlick-Steiner

Dolph Schluter

Philipp Schlüter

Dirk Schmeller

Paul Schmidt

Paul Stutz Schmidt

Thomas Schmitt

Tim Schmoll

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Jakob Schneller

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Isa Schoen

Peter Schonswetter

Tania Schwander

Dietmar Schwartz

Michael K. Schwartz

Andrea Schwarzbach

Doug Scofield

Kim Scribner

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Todd Seamons

Jeremy Searle

Jean Secondi

Jennifer M. Seddon

Ole Seehausen

Jose G. Segarra

Gernot Segelbacher

Kari A. Segraves

Kim Selkoe

Marc-Andre Selosse

Perttu Seppa

Ester Serrao

Alison Shapcott

Beth Shapiro

Tim Sharbel

A. Jonathan Shaw

Kerry L. Shaw

Paul W. Shaw

R. G. Shaw

William B. Sherwin

Kentaro Shimizu

DeWayne Shoemaker

Daniel Shriner

Jacqui A. Shykoff

Mathieu Sicard

Joan Silk

Jules Silverman

Jean-Christophe Simon

Benoît Simon-Bouhet

Andrew M. Simons

Barry Sinervo

Mark Singer

Steven Sinkins

Jack Sites

M. T. Siva-Jothy

David O. F. Skibinski

Inger Skrede

Hans Slabbekoorn

Jon Slate

Monty Slatkin

Bernard Slippers

Christopher Irwin Smith

Peter Smouse

Allison Snow

Pam S. Soltis

Douglas E. Soltis

Simone Sommer

Victoria Sork

Tiji Sota

Erik E. Sotka

Allen W. Spalding

Joe Spatafora

Allen W. Spaulding

Stephen Spear

Hamish Spencer

Peter B. S. Spencer

Felix A. Sperling

Phillip Q. Spinks

Goran Spong

Theresa Spradling

Paul Spruell

T. Stadler

Thomas Staedler

Dan R. Stahler

Wytze T. Stam

Craig Starger

J. L. Staton

Christian Stauffer

Tammy E. Steeves

Ivana Stehlik

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Hans Stenoien

Matthew Stephens

Carol Stepien

Virginie Stevens

C. Neal, Jr. Stewart

John Stireman

Martin Stjernman

Matthias Stock

Craig Stockwell

Judy Stone

Andrew Storfer

Jay F. Storz

Adam Stow

Alan Strand

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Rejane Streiff

Curtis Strobeck

B. L. Stuart

Eva H. Stukenbrock

Andrew V. Suarez

Kyle Summers

Joanna Sumner

Mei Sun

Paul Sunnucks

Hitoshi Suzuki

Emma Svensson

Bradley Swanson

William O. C. Symondson

Alfred E. Szmidt

Marta Szulkin

Jacek M. Szymura

Pierre Taberlet

Sandy Talbot

David A. Tallmon

Naoki Tani

D. R. Tarpy

Andrea C. Taylor

Andy Taylor

Barbara Taylor

D. R. Taylor

Eric B. Taylor

Martin Taylor

Maud Tenaillon

Juhani Terhivuo

Kumarasamy Thangaraj

C. W. Theodorakis

Frederic Thomas

Andrew Thompson

John N. Thompson

Daniel Thornhill

Roger S. Thorpe

Carl G. Thulin

Michel Tibayrenc

Peter Tiffin

Katriina Tiira

Krystal A. Tolley

Nobuhiro Tomaru

Jürgen Tomiuk

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Tatiana Torres

Dorset W. Trapnell

Michael Traugott

Steven Travis

Karin Tremetsberger

Steve Trewick

Joel Trexler

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David Troupin

Anne Tsitrone

Neil D. Tsutsui

Zhijian Tu

Priscilla Tucker

Julie Turgeon

Bruce J. Turner

Tom Turner

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Sean Twiss

Elisabeth Uhlmann

Tobias Uller

Mark C. Ungerer

Sylvain Ursenbacher

Sven Uthicke

Fred Utter

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Juha-Pekka Vähä

Risto Vainola

Rachel Vallender

W. Van Bortel

Tom Van de Casteele

Ronald A. Van Den Bussche

Karine van Donninck

Tom van Dooren

Jeroen van Houdt

Marcela van Loo

Cock Van Oosterhout

Madeleine J. H. Van Oppen

Blair Van Valkenburgh

Bettine J. Van Vuuren

Amy G. Vandergast

Sofie Vandewoestijne

Zoltan Varga

Anti Vasemagi

Fabrice Vavre

Xavier Vekemans

David Veliz

Giovanni G. Vendramin

Geerat Vermeij

David Vieites

Linda Vigilant

Jean-Denis Vigne

Sacha Vignieri

Carles Vila

Cor Vink

Massimilliano Virgilio

Renaud Vitalis

Johannes C. Vogel

Peter Vogel

Alfried P. Vogler

Kerstin Voigt

Steven V. Vollmer

K. Bernard von Hagen

Claire C. Vos

Randal Voss

Robert C. Vrijenhoek

Cees Waalwijk

Michael Wade

Niklas Wahlberg

Lisette Waits

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John R. Waldman

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Cathy Walton

Robin S. Waples

Robert D. Ward

Elaine Ward

John P. Wares

John Warren

K. S. Warren

Peter Waser

Samuel K. Wasser

Masao Watanabe

Jonathan Waters

Tom Watts

Phillip C. Watts

Robert K. Wayne

Patrick J. Weatherhead

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Lawrence J. Weider

Mylène Weill

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Steven Weiss

Mark Welch

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Silke Werth

Helena Westerdahl

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Barbara Whitlock

Ken Whitney

Jeannette Whitton

Anja Widdig

Alex Widmer

Diane C. Wiernasz

Kipling Will

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Claire G. Williams

Rodney Williams

Barry L. Williams

Suzanne T. Williams

Alastair J. Wilson

Greg Wilson

Robert J. Wilson

Tony Wilson

Brenda D. Wingfield

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Thierry Wirth

Jonathan Witt

Diana Wolf

Matthias Wolf

Jochen Wolf

Jason Wolfe

Alex Wong

Gert Worheide

Kirsty Worley

Jessica Worthington-Wilmer

Timothy F. Wright

Tesfaye Wubet

Wolfgang Wuster

Andrew Young

Fred Zaidan

Kelly Zamudio

Monika Zavodna

David Zeh

Jiasui Zhan

De-Xing Zhang

Olga Zhaxybayeva

Lev A Zhivotovsky

A. G. Zink

Robert M. Zink

J. Zluvova

Joe Zuccarello