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Table S1 Overview of previous studies revealing northern refugia in European vertebrate and invertebrate species. Freshwater, terrestrial, and amphibious taxa are indicated, and supposed refugial areas are given. The data used for this review were compiled from searches in Web of Science (publications until August 2008) and Zoological Record Archive 1978–2007. Titles, abstracts and keywords of all articles were searched for the terms: ‘refug*’ and ‘glacial’ or ‘Pleistocene’

Table S2Bythinella spp. and outgroup specimens studied, including locality information, collection and voucher details as well as NCBI GenBank Accession numbers for the three gene fragments sequenced. TL, type locality. 1 Bichain et al. (2007), 2 Szarowska & Wilke (2004), 3 Wilke et al. (2001)

Fig. S1 Comparison of the observed mismatch distribution (solid lines) with a growth/decline model of population growth (dotted lines) for Bythinella spp. in mountain ranges that harbour polymorph populations.

Fig. S2 Results of the nested clade analysis. All shown clades are level-2 clades (colours refer to clades in phylogenetic tree, Fig. 2) except for clade I (here level-1 clades are given and clades belonging to the same level-2 clade are indicated by the same colour shade). Historical processes inferred by the NCA are shown: AF, allopatric fragmentation; CRE, continuous range expansion; LDC a/o PF, long-distance colonization and/or past fragmentation; LDC, long-distance colonization possibly coupled with subsequent fragmentation or past fragmentation followed by range expansion; RGF w IBD, restricted gene flow with isolation by distance.

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