Present address: Laboratory of Neurogenetics and Behavior, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, Box 63, New York, NY 10065, USA
Allopatric origin of cryptic butterfly species that were discovered feeding on distinct host plants in sympatry
Version of Record online: 7 AUG 2009
© 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Volume 18, Issue 17, pages 3639–3651, September 2009
How to Cite
McBRIDE, C. S., VAN VELZEN, R. and LARSEN, T. B. (2009), Allopatric origin of cryptic butterfly species that were discovered feeding on distinct host plants in sympatry. Molecular Ecology, 18: 3639–3651. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2009.04309.x
The authors met and began this collaboration through a mutual interest in Afrotropical butterflies. Carolyn McBride uses a combination of field, molecular genetic, and computational approaches to study host adaptation in insects, particularly as it relates to speciation. She recently finished her PhD at the University of California Davis and is now a postdoc at The Rockefeller University in New York. Robin van Velzen is a PhD student at the Wageningen University, supervised by Freek Bakker, working on ecology, evolution and systematics of species of Cymothoe and their Rinorea host plants. He is especially interested in host plant associations and underlying mechanisms, as well as their influence on patterns of diversification. Torben Larsen is the author of the standard works on butterflies of Arabia, Kenya and West Africa. He is currently working on a monograph of the African Hesperiidae as well as coordinating in-depth butterfly surveys of selected African forests for long-term monitoring.
- Issue online: 20 AUG 2009
- Version of Record online: 7 AUG 2009
- Received 10 November 2008; revision received 15 June 2009; accepted 18 June 2009
Appendix S1 Taxonomic Summary of C. egesta and C. confusa.
Fig. S1 Neighbor-Joining tree of short COI barcodes from 85 specimens of C. egesta sensu lato. The specimens fall into two major clades corresponding to the cryptic species, C. egesta s. s. and C. confusa. Specimen labels include the country and localities of origin, with the country names colored to illustrate their position in the map of Africa (top left). The two species are mostly allopatric, overlapping only in Cameroon. The specimen ABR5 from northwest Tanzania was excluded due to poor sequence quality in the region of the barcode.
Fig. S2 Variation in the extent of melanization on wings of adult male C. egesta (A-C) and C. confusa (D-F). The specimens of each species are arranged from west to east – with the eastern most C. egesta (C) and the western most C. confusa (D) coming from the area of sympatry in Cameroon. The cross-species longitudinal cline in melanization can be seen by disregarding the species assignments and examining the specimens in order from west to east (A-F). A) Light C. egesta f. degesta from Vane, Ghana. B) Typical western C. egesta from Bobiri, Ghana. C) Darker and slightly orange C. egesta from Cameroon. D) Light C. confusa from Cameroon. E) Typical C. confusa from Shaba, Congo (DRC) that matches the holotype closely. F) Very dark C. confusa male from Tanganyika Province, eastern Congo (DRC). Background yellow color tone of different specimens are not directly comparable due to differences in photographic methods and postprocessing. Males average 6.5 cm in wing-span. Females not shown.
Fig. S3 Estimated divergence time between C. egesta and C. confusa. The curves represent the posterior probability densities of divergence time estimated using the program MDIV assuming two different values for the mutation rates (u). The set of curves on the left and right represent the same four independent runs of the program with u assumed to be either 1.15% (Brower 1994) or 0.78% (Zakharov et al. 2004), respectively.
Table S1 Collection information associated with the butterfly specimens examined this study
Table S2 Primers used for amplifying and sequencing the mtDNA COI gene from low and high quality (poorly and well preserved) C. egesta specimens
Table S3 PCR recipes used in combination with the C. egesta specific primers for specimens yielding high and low quality DNA
Table S4 PCR cycling protocols used in combination with the C. egesta specific primers. The standard protocol was used for high quality specimens, and the “touchdown” protocol was used specifically for older specimens that yielded low quality DNA
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Please note: Wiley Blackwell is not responsible for the content or functionality of any supporting information supplied by the authors. Any queries (other than missing content) should be directed to the corresponding author for the article.