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Appendix S1. Number of alleles, allele sizes and their estimated frequencies at the 7 microsatellite loci used in this study.

Appendix S2. Comparison of pair-wise genetic relatedness (R, mean ± SE) of sex-specific dyads within versus between core flocks of house sparrows. Differences were tested by Mann-Whitney tests with two-tailed P values estimated by 10000 permutations; n= number of within-flock and between-flock dyads used in the tests. Corrected significance levels (α) are given for P< 0.05 results (sequential Bonferroni correction for 21 comparisons, two-tailed).

Appendix S3. Sex-specific comparison of the proportion of close kin present within versus outside core flocks (mean ± SE). Differences were tested by paired Wilcoxon tests with two-tailed P values estimated by 10000 permutations; n= number of individuals of the respective sex in the core flock. Corrected significance levels (α) are given for P< 0.05 results (sequential Bonferroni correction for 14 comparisons, two-tailed).

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