Editorial and retrospective 2010

Authors


State of the Journal

The year 2009 has been another excellent period for Molecular Ecology. The impact of the journal increased from 5.17 in 2007 to 5.33 in 2008; it currently ranks sixth in impact among 124 journals listed in ISI’s Ecology category, and fifth out of 39 journals listed in ISI’s Evolutionary Biology journal category. Molecular Ecology also increased in size, with 403 articles published in 2008, making it the largest Evolutionary Biology journal and second largest Ecology journal.

We also have increased the speed with which papers are published. For original and resubmitted manuscripts, we take an average of 30.4 days to make a decision (including those returned without review). For papers that are peer reviewed, we return a decision within an average of 40.6 days. Accepted manuscripts are moved to Online Early publication in 41 days (on average), with the print version appearing c. 23 days later. Thus, the time from submission to print publication of a typical paper averages 105 days or c. 3½ months. We thank our academic editors, reviewers, as well as our editorial and production staff, for their efficient processing of manuscripts.

Editorial policy

Several important policy decisions were made at our editorial board meeting this summer. These are reported below:

Data archiving

Due to concerns about the availability and preservation of data from ecological and evolutionary studies, most of the leading journals in ecology and evolution will soon be introducing a new data archiving policy (Whitlock et al. 2010). Our current archiving policy applies only to DNA sequence data, which must be made available on GenBank or another public archive. However, the new policy will be applicable to all data-supporting results in papers published in Molecular Ecology. A more lengthy rationale for the policy can be found in Whitlock et al. (2010).

Molecular Ecology’s policy will read as follows:

Molecular Ecology expects, as a condition for publication, that data supporting the results in the paper should be archived in an appropriate public archive, such as GenBank, Gene Expression Omnibus, TreeBASE, Dryad, or the Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity. Data are important products of the scientific enterprise, and they should be preserved and usable for decades in the future. Authors may elect to have the data publicly available at time of publication, or, if the technology of the archive allows, may opt to embargo access to the data for a period up to a year after publication. Exceptions may be granted at the discretion of the editor, especially for sensitive information such as human subject data or the location of endangered species.

Our policy will not go into force until January 2011, but in the meantime, we encourage authors to submit their data to the relevant repositories. DNA sequence data from either Sanger or next generation sequencing should continue to be archived in GenBank or another public database. Expression data should be submitted to the Gene Expression Omnibus or an equivalent database, whereas phylogenetic trees should be submitted to TreeBASE. More idiosyncratic data, such as microsatellite allele frequency data, can be archived in a more flexible digital data library such as the US National Science Foundation-sponsored Dryad archive at http://datadryad.org.

Once the policy is in force in 2011, authors will be expected to archive the data supporting their results and conclusions, along with sufficient details so that a third party can interpret them correctly. As discussed by Whitlock et al. (2010), this will likely ‘require a short additional text document, with details specifying the meaning of each column in the data set. The preparation of such shareable data sets will be easiest if these files are prepared as part of the data analysis phase of the preparation of the paper, rather than after acceptance of a manuscript’.

From the Cover

In spring 2008, we moved from an e-mail-based manuscript management system to a web-based system. An unexpected consequence of this transition has been a substantial increase in the speed of the review and publication process for all papers submitted to Molecular Ecology, essentially rendering our separate ‘Fast Track’ editorial process obsolete. Nonetheless, we feel that there is a need to accommodate high impact, short format research papers. Thus, we have replaced the Fast Track category with a new ‘From the Cover’ section.

As with Fast Track, the ‘From the Cover’ section contains papers of exceptional interest to a wide audience and that address significant questions in ecology, evolution, behaviour or conservation. We will consider papers previously reviewed by other high-impact journals, with the added innovation that we will utilize all documents associated with the previous review process. The use of these review materials does not guarantee acceptance or that the manuscript will not receive external review. However, papers with largely positive reviews from leading general science journals will receive immediate consideration for publication and may not require additional review. If the authors hope to avoid additional review, they need to revise the manuscript according to reviewers’ comments and submit a cover letter that describes these changes and explains why their paper would be appropriate for publication as a Cover article in Molecular Ecology. Upon receipt, Senior Editor Bob Wayne will immediately review submissions for content and impact. Submissions that do not meet stringent standards will be returned at that stage without review, or they will be invited for resubmission as regular full papers. From the Cover manuscripts must be brief and focused, in 4000 words or less, with up to five display items (tables and figures). Accepted articles will be highlighted in the journal on the cover and in the table of contents and will frequently be featured in commentaries and press alerts.

Compliance with laws on animal experimentation

Although only a handful of papers published in Molecular Ecology involve experiments with animals, it is important these experiments be conducted properly, minimize suffering and comply with relevant regulations. Thus, we have developed the following policy:

We expect that papers submitted to Molecular Ecology comply with the laws on animal experimentation in the countries where the work was conducted. All experimental procedures must be properly described and should be designed to minimize the suffering of animals.

Special issues

We are pleased to announce that after a brief hiatus in 2009, Molecular Ecology has two excellent special issues lined up for 2010. The first, due in February and edited by Diethard Tautz, Hans Ellegren and Detlef Weigel, is entitled ‘Next generation Molecular Ecology’. The papers in this issue offer a glimpse of the enormous potential that next-generation sequencing technology offers researchers in ecology and evolution: the chance to tackle existing problems with tremendous statistical power, and the ability to test new hypotheses unimaginable a few short years ago. The second special issue of 2010 will focus on ‘Landscape Genetics’, another rapidly developing and increasingly important field. The organizers, Lisette Waits and Victoria Sork, have brought together empirical and methodological contributions from leading workers in this area, with the aim of establishing the benchmark for research in this nascent field. We would like to extend our gratitude to the guest editors of both issues for their hard work so far, and we are delighted that they chose Molecular Ecology to showcase these cutting edge studies.

Molecular techniques and their impact on ecology

A recent article in Oikos (Johnson et al. 2009c) asks the provocative question: where is the ecology in molecular ecology? The article reports on a survey of research published in Ecology, Evolution, and Molecular Ecology. Evolutionary studies are shown to be considerably more likely to employ molecular tools than are ecological studies. Also, papers published in Molecular Ecology are more likely to have an evolutionary than ecological focus, a trend we have commented on previously (Rieseberg & Smith 2002).

So why do ecologists less frequently employ molecular techniques than evolutionary biologists? Johnson et al. (2009c) put forward two possible explanations. One possibility is that, for cultural reasons, the ecological sciences have been more resistant to the use of molecular tools than evolutionary biology. A second possible explanation, which we find more satisfying, is that many ecological questions can be answered without the aid of molecular techniques, whereas most evolutionary questions clearly benefit from molecular data. Nonetheless, as editors of Molecular Ecology, we have been pleasantly surprised at the many creative ways in which molecular tools are being used to address ecological questions. We also believe that the molecular biology techniques have infiltrated ecology to a greater extent than is generally recognized. Some of the ecological topics that have been addressed with molecular tools over the past year include: ecological speciation (Galindo et al. 2009; Sadedin et al. 2009), population demography (Curtis et al. 2009; Jackson et al. 2009; Liu & Ely 2009; Lundemo et al. 2009), population dynamics (Bayon et al. 2009), evolutionary ecology (Aubin-Horth & Renn 2009; Cartwright 2009; Latta 2009), behavioural ecology (Beekman et al. 2009; Berg et al. 2009; Du & Lu 2009; Johnson et al. 2009a), disease ecology (Abrego et al. 2009a; Almeida et al. 2009; Jaatinen et al. 2009; Rudge et al. 2009), macroecology (Elias et al. 2009; Parnell et al. 2009; Thomas 2009; Wilson 2009), community ecology (Abrego et al. 2009b; Carletto et al. 2009; Clare et al. 2009; Haselkorn et al. 2009), invasion ecology (Chun et al. 2009; Henry et al. 2009a; Mikheyev et al. 2009; Rollins et al. 2009), population interactions (Reisser et al. 2009), transgene escape (Pineyro-Nelson et al. 2009b; Snow 2009) and so forth. Thus, we feel that the content of Molecular Ecology is becoming more relevant to ecologists, a trend we hope will accelerate in the future.

2009 Molecular Ecology Prize

The 2009 Molecular Ecology Prize was awarded to Professor Terry Burke, of the University of Sheffield. Terry was the first chief editor of Molecular Ecology, and he pioneered the use of DNA fingerprinting methods for parentage analyses in birds. He also has made significant general contributions to our understanding of the molecular and quantitative genetics of natural populations. A biography of Terry and his contributions to molecular ecology can be found on page 23 of this issue.

Editors

We regret to report that several of our longest serving and/or most distinguished editors have stepped down this year: Roger Butlin, John Dallas, Franco Widmer and John Wakeley. We thank them for their many contributions to the journal. Fortunately, several distinguished scientists have agreed to join our editorial board to serve both as replacements for our departing editors and to help handle the ever-increasing number of submissions (we expect to receive >1400 submissions this year). The new editors include Sean Rogers (University of Calgary), Rosemary Gillespie (University of California, Berkeley), Aurelie Bonin (Indiana University), Roger Thorpe (University of Bangor), Tatiana Giraud (Université Paris-Sud XI), Daniel Falush (University of Oxford), Madeleine van Oppen (Australian Institute of Marine Science) and Dany Garant (University of Sherbrooke). In addition, we will also welcome Arianne Albert as a second News and Views Editor; she will be assisting Nolan Kane with our increasingly popular Perspectives section. Welcome to all of you!!

Reviewers

Lastly, we wish to express our gratitude to our many referees (listed below) for the donation of their time to the journal and to the discipline of molecular ecology.

Retrospective

In recent years, we have begun publishing a retrospective (below) to discuss and highlight significant advances in molecular ecology in the previous year. This is part of a broader effort to showcase the science published in Molecular Ecology, which includes our News and Views section, cover banners, press releases and so forth.

Sympatric speciation

For most of the 20th century, speciation in the absence of geographic isolation (i.e. sympatric speciation) was considered to be unlikely because of the homogenizing effects of gene flow. However, recent theoretical work indicates sympatric speciation is feasible in the presence of strong disruptive natural selection and/or genetic architectures that minimize the antagonism between selection and recombination. The problem has been finding convincing empirical examples (Coyne & Orr 2004). A number of studies published in Molecular Ecology in 2009 tackled this problem. Although allopatric divergence is considered most likely in some instances (Guzik et al. 2009; McBride et al. 2009; Virgilio et al. 2009), several apparent examples of sympatric speciation are discussed, including Schizothoracine fish (Zhao et al. 2009), coral barnacles (Tsang et al. 2009), marine snails (Galindo et al. 2009; Sadedin et al. 2009) and cichlid fishes (reviewed in (Salzburger 2009). Also, early stages of sympatric divergence were characterized in Capsella (Hameister et al. 2009) and cotton–melon aphids (Carletto et al. 2009).

The journal also saw a follow-up study of one of the most famous cases of sympatric speciation involving two sister species of the palm genus Howea from Lord Howe Island. Because the two palms are restricted to this very small island and are wind-pollinated, it seems likely that they diverged in sympatry (Savolainen et al. 2006). Nonetheless, this scenario has been questioned because Lord Howe Island was larger in the past, possibly affording opportunities for partial geographic isolation (Stuessy 2006). The present study showed that genetic structuring in both species is low, implying that spatial separation played a minor role, if any, in the development of reproductive isolation (Babik et al. 2009a). Likewise, little admixture was observed between the two species, indicating that the reproductive barriers are strong. These results confirm that the Howea palms likely do represent a legitimate example of speciation in the absence of significant geographic barriers to gene flow.

Hubb’s principle

The widespread application of molecular marker approaches to the analysis of natural populations has made it feasible to estimate the frequency and direction of hybridization involving numerous species of animals and plants. However, very few studies have attempted to explain variation in hybridization rates. A potentially important factor, first posited by the ichthyologist Carl Hubbs, is the relative abundance of the hybridizing species. Hubbs reasoned that hybridization would be most frequent when species abundances were unbalanced because a locally rare species would encounter mostly heterospecific gametes. Lepais et al. (2009) tested this conjecture by analyzing more than 2000 European oak trees with 10 microsatellite markers. Hybrids were surprisingly common, conservatively representing between 11% and 31% of genotypes within sampled populations. As predicted by Hubbs, locally dominant species were under-represented among the hybrids.

Hybridization and its consequences

Hybridization can have both negative and positive consequences for biodiversity. On the negative size, hybridization can lead to the breakdown of reproductive barriers and merger of species (so-called de-speciation). It can also lead to the extinction of rare populations through outbreeding depression or through genetic assimilation by a more widespread congener. Positive outcomes include increased rates of adaptive evolution, the formation of new races and species, and the reinforcement of reproductive barriers. Unfortunately, little is known about the relative importance of these different outcomes. However, a significant literature on the topic is being developed in Molecular Ecology and other journals, and ordering the importance of the various consequences or outcomes of hybridization is now becoming feasible. A surprise has been the very high number of instances in which hybridization appears to be contributing to adaptive evolution. For example, this year in Molecular Ecology we were able to identify six examples where hybridization was thought to be contributing to adaptation (Gagnaire et al. 2009; Gaskin et al. 2009; Hird & Sullivan 2009; Nolte et al. 2009; Pillon et al. 2009; Zidana et al. 2009), but only one case where it was a serious extinction threat (McDevitt et al. 2009).

Cryptic species

One of the most gratifying outcomes of phylogeographic studies has been the frequent discovery of cryptic species––species that are similar in morphology, but appear to represent reproductively independent lineages. Reproductive independence is usually inferred from the discovery of significant divergence in molecular markers and/or reciprocal monophyly in phylogenetic trees. Examples published in Molecular Ecology in 2009 are listed in Table 1.

Table 1.   Newly discovered cryptic species
OrganismMolecular approachReference
Phreatochiltonia and Austrochiltonia (freshwater amphipods)mtDNA and allozymesMurphy et al. (2009)
Troglocaris anophthalmus (cave shrimp)mtDNA and nuclearZaksek et al. (2009)
Doris kerguelenensis (sea slug)mtDNA and 16S ribosomal DNAWilson et al. (2009)
Wanella milleporae (coral barnacles)mtDNATsang et al. (2009)
Acanthemblemaria crockeri (reef fish)mtDNALin et al. (2009)
Glossina palpalis (tsetse fly)mtDNA, ITS and microsatsDyer et al. (2009)
Vandiemenella viatica (grasshoppers)multipleKawakami et al. (2009)
Acanthodiaptomus pacificus (freshwater copepod)mtDNA and ITSMakino & Tanabe (2009)
Cymothoe egesta (butterfly)mtDNAMcBride et al. (2009)
Mecaphesa spp. (crab spiders)mtDNA and nuclearGarb & Gillespie (2009)
Globigerinoides ruber (planktonic foraminifera)SSU rDNAAurahs et al. (2009)

Patterns of spatial genetic structure

A major focus of Molecular Ecology since its inception has been the description and explanation of patterns of genetic variation within species. In particular, there have numerous attempts to identify and order the factors that account for spatial genetic structure. Three factors have emerged as most explanatory: habitat adaptation, geographic distance, and physical features of the environment. However, molecular ecology is a science of case studies, and conclusions require integration of information from numerous studies. In 2009, the majority of papers addressing this question in Molecular Ecology found evidence that geographic distance and physical barriers were most likely to influence patterns of gene flow and population genetic structure (Table 2), whereas habitat adaptation had a much lesser role. However, there are a number of reasons why the importance of habitat adaptation might be under-estimated. First, habitat adaptation is more difficult to quantify and its effects on spatial genetic structure are less frequently tested than geographic distance or physical barriers. Second, habitat adaptation is expected to have chromosomally local effects, whereas geographic distance and physical barriers are anticipated to have genome-wide effects. Because most studies published in Molecular Ecology sample only a small fraction of the genome, they are unlikely to detect changes in genetic variation due to local selection. In future, as more genome scans are published in the journal, we expect to see stronger evidence of a role for habitat adaptation in governing the spatial genetic structure of populations.

Table 2.   Factors affecting spatial genetic structure
TaxonHabitat AdaptationGeographic DistancePhysical BarrierReference
Milicia excelsa (tropical tree) Yes Bizoux et al. (2009)
Manihot esculenta (wild Cassava) Yes Duputie et al. (2009)
Asplenium spp. (ferns) Yes Hunt et al. (2009)
Salmonid spp.  YesGomez-Uchida et al. (2009)
Montastraea cavernosa (coral) Yes Nunes et al. (2009)
Puccinia striiformis (rust)Yes  Bahri et al. (2009)
Emydid turtle spp. YesYesStephens & Wiens (2009)
Bufo exul (toad) YesYesWang (2009)
Nebrioporus ceresyi and Ochthebius notabilis (water beetles)Yes  Abellan et al. (2009)
Macropus fuliginosus (kangaroo) YesYesNeaves et al. (2009)
Sander vitreus (walleye) Yes Stepien et al. (2009)
Orthonyx temminckii (rainforest bird) YesYesPavlacky et al. (2009)
Rana arvalis (frog) Yes Knopp & Merila (2009)
Gobionotothen gibberifrons (Antarctic fish)  YesMatschiner et al. (2009)
Darkling beetles (Tenebrionidae)Yes  Papadopoulou et al. (2009)
Phalacrocorax harrisi (cormorant) YesYesDuffie et al. (2009)
Rana sylvatica (frog)  YesLee-Yaw et al. (2009)
Neovison vison (mink)  YesZalewski et al. (2009)
Xenophallus umbratilis (tropical fish) YesYesJones & Johnson (2009)
Acanthaster planci (starfish)  YesYasuda et al. (2009)
Elaeocarpus spp. (tropical trees)Yes YesRossetto et al. (2009)
Zalophus californianus (sea lion)   Gonzalez-Suarez et al. (2009)
Procyon lotor (raccoon)  YesCullingham et al. (2009)

Habitat fragmentation and conservation genetics

The effects of habitat fragmentation are not always predictable, however. Although several studies (De-Lucas et al. 2009; Liu et al. 2009) found that habitat fragmentation did indeed lead to spatial genetic structure and lower variation within populations, this was not always found to be the case. Mayer et al. (2009), Mimura et al. (2009) and Purrenhage et al. (2009) found little loss in genetic variation in fragmented populations, and high medium- and long-distance dispersal.

A more general survey of genetic variation in rare and endangered populations found very low genetic variation in some rare species (Ahonen et al. 2009; Boessenkool et al. 2009; Grivet et al. 2009; Johnson et al. 2009b), but surprisingly high variation in others (Duffie et al. 2009; Gonzalez-Suarez et al. 2009; Henry et al. 2009b; Shen et al. 2009; Straub & Doyle 2009).

In more common, globally distributed species, high variation and little spatial genetic structure are often expected. While this is sometimes found to be the case (Nagai et al. 2009; Rosendahl et al. 2009; Shimizu-Inatsugi et al. 2009) due to high vagility and/or human-mediated dispersal, other globally distributed species show extremely high spatial genetic structure, with little gene flow between populations (Ahonen et al. 2009; Chabot & Allen 2009; Zaffarano et al. 2009).

Phylogeography

The importance of including multiple markers in any assessment of phylogeography is becoming increasingly apparent. Out of 20 such studies published in 2009 in Molecular Ecology (Table 3), only four (Cardoso & Montoya-Burgos 2009; Hoebe et al. 2009; Hunt et al. 2009; Lee & Johnson 2009) show full concordance between nuclear and cytoplasmic markers. Interestingly, a single marker may not be enough to tell the full story of even an organellar lineage; one study with five different mitochondrial markers (Xu et al. 2009) revealed important differences in the genealogies of the loci, with evidence of hybridization and recombination among mitochondrial lineages. Likely explanations for lack of concordance between nuclear and organellar markers include hybridization and mitochondrial capture (Chen et al. 2009; Nevado et al. 2009), introgression of nuclear genes but not organellar genes (Sala-Bozano et al. 2009), differences between male and female migration rates (Braaker & Heckel 2009; Makino & Tanabe 2009), and differences in the rate of evolution of nuclear and mitochondrial markers (Kempf et al. 2009).

Table 3.   Phylogeographic analysis: concordance between multiple makers
TaxonOrganellar markersNuclear markersConcordanceReference
Lamprologus callipterus, Neolamprologus fasciatusmtDNADNA sequenceNoNevado et al. (2009)
Scutiger spp.mtDNADNA sequenceNoChen et al. (2009)
Cryptococcus gattii5 mtDNA markers NoXu et al. (2009)
Durvillaea potatorummtDNA, cpDNA SomeFraser et al. (2009)
Gammarus minusmtDNADNA sequenceNoCarlini et al. (2009)
Arabidopsis lyratacpDNAMicrosatelliteYesHoebe et al. (2009)
Asplenium spp.cpDNAAllozymeYesHunt et al. (2009)
Lithognathus mormyrusmtDNAMicrosatelliteNoSala-Bozano et al. (2009)
Microtus arvalismtDNAMicrosatelliteNoBraaker & Heckel (2009)
Bythinella spp.mtDNADNA sequenceNot testedBenke et al. (2009)
Ixodes uriaemtDNAMicrosatelliteNoKempf et al. (2009)
Poecilia gilliimtDNADNA sequenceYesLee & Johnson (2009)
Acanthodiaptomus pacificusmtDNADNA sequenceNoMakino & Tanabe (2009)
Vandiemenella viaticamtDNAAllozymeSomeKawakami et al. (2009)
Glyphorynchus spirurusmtDNAAFLPSomeMila et al. (2009)
Eumetiopias jubatusmtDNAAFLP, microsatelliteNoHoffman et al. (2009)
Sciurus vulgarismtDNAMicrosatelliteNoGrill et al. (2009)
Euphorbia lomeliicpDNADNA sequenceSomeGarrick et al. (2009)
Picea asperatamtDNA, cpDNA NoDu et al. (2009)
Pseudancistrus brevispinismtDNADNA sequenceYesCardoso & Montoya-Burgos (2009)

Invasive species

Numerous studies on invasive species have been published over the past year, with quite a clear association between the number of origins of the invasion and the amount of genetic variation present in the invasive species (Table 4). Several invasive species thought to have multiple origins did indeed have high levels of genetic variation (Brown & Stepien 2009; Chun et al. 2009; Pringle et al. 2009), in one case higher than in native populations (Zidana et al. 2009). Only a few invasive species with multiple origins have low variation (Henry et al. 2009a; Peacock et al. 2009), as did those with few origins (Mikheyev et al. 2009; Valade et al. 2009).

Table 4.   Invasive species: number of origins and level of genetic variation
TaxonNumber of invasionsGenetic variationReference
Cynotilapia afraMultiHighZidana et al. (2009)
Cameraria ohridellaFewLowValade et al. (2009)
Heracleum mantegazzianumMultiLowHenry et al. (2009a)
Wasmannia auropunctataSingle cloneLowMikheyev et al. (2009)
Styela clavaMulti?HighDupont et al. (2009)
Bromus tectorumMultiHighLeger et al. (2009)
CordylophoraMulti?HighDarling & Folino-Rorem (2009)
Bactrocera invadensMulti?HighKhamis et al. (2009)
Eleutherodactylus coquiTwoLowPeacock et al. (2009)
Lythrum salicariaMultiHighChun et al. (2009)
Amanita phalloidesMulti Pringle et al. (2009)
Asparagopsis taxiformisUnknownHighAndreakis et al. (2009)
Neogobius melanostomusMultiHighBrown & Stepien (2009)
Linepithemaa humileMulti?Low(Brandt et al. 2009)

Host–parasite interactions, heterozygosity and the major histocompatibility complex

The complex interaction between organisms and their parasites has long fascinated biologists, and many hypotheses have been advanced to explain how some individuals are able to cope with or avoid infection when others cannot. One set of loci receiving particular attention are those of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), as these genes encode proteins responsible for mounting the adaptive immune response. The multitude of alleles found at these loci suggest strong selection for either heterozygosity or rare alleles, and hence researchers have concentrated particular effort on documenting how variation at the MHC loci varies across space and time. One surprising result published in Molecular Ecology this year found that while populations of the newt Triturus cristatus had high MHC diversity in glacial refugia populations (Romania), populations at the outer edge of the postglacial expansion (PGE) were very depauperate (Babik et al. 2009b). They also found evidence of positive selection on the MHC in Romania, raising the question of how the PGE populations had survived almost 10 000 years with minimal MHC variation. In a study on house sparrows, Loiseau et al. (2009) compared variation at the MHC with microsatellite data in spatially structured populations, and found that the MHC was much more differentiated between populations than the neutral loci, suggesting that spatially varying selection was responsible for maintaining variation. A study by Oliver et al. (2009) found evidence for the effects of drift on MHC diversity at broad spatial scales in voles, with directional and balancing selection acting more locally. A detailed molecular study on MHC-II in brown hares by Koutsogiannouli et al. (2009) also found evidence for balancing selection. Other notable studies in this area include Evans and Neff (2009), Lampert et al. (2009) and Roberts (2009). We hope that more studies of this sort will appear in the journal in the coming year.

Intriguingly, there is considerable evidence that MHC loci are also involved in mate choice, but how MHC genotype affects reproductive success is currently unclear. Two papers published in 2009 shed new light on this problem (Roberts 2009). First, Eizaguirre et al. (2009) showed that female sticklebacks were more likely to choose mates with a specific MHC genotype that was more resistance to a parasite, but they generally also picked males with intermediate MHC diversity. Second, Bos et al. (2009) studied mate choice in breeding salamanders in relation to MHC genotype, finding that females produce most offspring when mated to males with similar MHC genotypes to their own. Both these studies suggest that MHC-based mate choice is highly dependent on ecological context, but that it nonetheless plays an important role in breeding decisions.

A second factor potentially involved in parasite resistance and overall fitness is whole genome heterozygosity – individuals that are heterozygous at more loci (perhaps because they are less inbred) have long been thought to survive and reproduce better than more homozygous individuals. In a landmark meta-analysis, Chapman et al. (2009) surveyed the evidence for this belief, and found only weak evidence for heterozygosity–fitness correlations across many traits when using a sophisticated multivariate approach. A number of other studies addressing the relationship between individual heterozygosity and fitness-related traits have appeared in Molecular Ecology this year. For example, Pujolar et al. (2009) found no relationship between heterozygosity at 22 microsatellites and either growth rate or infection by a parasitic nematode. Similarly, Cohas et al. (2009) investigated the effect of heterozygosity on juvenile survival, adult survival and social dominance in alpine marmots, but only found a positive effect in juveniles. A study by Blanchet et al. (2009) found a contrasting result: in a population of rostrum dace infected with a fin parasite, individuals with intermediate heterozygosity had the highest parasite load.

There is clear conceptual link between genome-wide heterozygosity and the level of inbreeding, and hence a considerable research effort has been directed at linking heterozygosity, inbreeding and fitness. For example, Mainguy et al. (2009) found that the offspring of mountain goats that mated with relatives were both less heterozygous and less likely to survive in their first year. One common problem with these studies is that low levels of heterozygosity may not necessarily reflect inbreeding (Ruiz-Lopez et al. 2009), and there are also pitfalls in using the same microsatellite data set to infer both parentage and the frequency of matings between relatives (Slate 2009; Wetzel & Westneat 2009). One possible solution is to use very large numbers of markers, effectively taking these studies into the genomic era. This approach was exemplified by Hagenblad et al. (2009), who used 250 microsatellites to characterize the joint effects of inbreeding and selection on the highly inbred Scandinavian wolf. They found no apparent effect of heterozygosity on fitness, but did manage to detect both balancing and directional selection in several parts of the genome.

Disease dynamics

Studies focused on pathogens have become increasingly common in Molecular Ecology over the past few years, reflecting a growing effort aimed at understanding the ecology, evolution and population structure of microorganisms (Table 5). This is particularly true for newly identified invasive diseases, as these can rapidly decimate crops (Bahri et al. 2009; Crouch et al. 2009), whole taxonomic classes (e.g. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis on amphibians: Fisher et al. 2009; Goka et al. 2009) or even threaten whole biotas within a particular geographic area (e.g. plants in California affected by Phytophthora ramorum; Goss et al. 2009; Mascheretti et al. 2009). Studies on apparently well-known and apparently stable pathogens are often equally important, as more damaging lineages can suddenly arise and spread without warning (e.g. Bayon et al. 2009). Understanding the origin and spread of these new lineages is clearly impossible in the absence of detailed information on the pathogen’s existing population structure.

Table 5.   Pathogen studies: spatial structure and invasion status
SpeciesTypeHostSpatial structure?Invasive/ spreading? Reference
Onnia tomentosaFungusConiferLocal, moderate Germain et al. (2009)
Plasmodium/HaemoproteusProtozoaBirdsWeak Chasar et al. (2009)
Phytophthora ramorumFungusPlantsOverlapping lineagesYesGoss et al. (2009), Mascheretti et al. (2009)
Melampsora larici-epiteaFungusWillow/larchOverlapping lineages Bayon et al. (2009)
Saccharomyces cerevisiaeYeastHumansPanmixia Muller & McCusker (2009)
Rhychosporium secalisFungusBarleyContinental Zaffarano et al. (2009)
Batrachochytrium dendrobatidisFungusAmphibiansOverlapping lineagesYesFisher et al. (2009), Goka et al. (2009)
Colletotrichum cerealeFungusGrassesOverlapping lineagesYesCrouch et al. (2009)
Banana bunchy top virusVirusBananaNone in HawaiiYesAlmeida et al. (2009)
Puccinia striiformis f. sp. triticiFungusWheatAllopatric lineagesYesBahri et al. (2009)
Cryptococcus gattiiYeastHumansCo-occurring lineagesYesXu et al. (2009)
Schistosoma japonicumTrematodeMammalsStrong at regional level Rudge et al. (2009)
Beauveria bassianaFungusInsectsMany co-occurring lineages Meyling et al. (2009)

Ongoing debates

An ongoing major debate on the escape of transgenes has continued to unfold in the pages of Molecular Ecology. As highlighted by Snow (2009), researchers have found evidence of contamination of locally grown ‘landraces’ of maize by gene flow from modern crop cultivars in Italy (Bitocchi et al. 2009) and Mexico (Pineyro-Nelson et al. 2009a), the latter cases involving the escape of transgenes. A Comment by (Schoel & Fagan 2009) argued that the evidence for transgene escape was not definitive, and that the tests showing evidence of transgenes in Mexican landrace populations were prone to false-positives. Pineyro-Nelson et al. (2009b) replied that the tests advocated by Schoel and Fagan are prone to false-negatives, and point out that their results are backed by sequence and Southern blot data.

Another interesting debate has centred on the best measure of genetic differentiation between populations. Jost (2008) proposed a new measure, D, which he argues is preferable to GST for measuring differences in allele frequencies. Heller & Siegismund (2009) performed a meta-analysis on 34 previously published studies, comparing DEST, GST and inline image. Most importantly, GST was strongly negatively correlated with within-population genetic diversity (R2 = 0.46), a potential bias pointed out by Hedrick (2005) that complicates interpretation and can be avoided by using either DEST or inline image. Both alternate measures were shown to be highly correlated with each other in this data set (R2 = 0.97), so may be largely interchangeable. Ryman & Leimar (2009) used simulations to show that Jost’s D is dependent on mutation rate, arguing that it cannot be easily interpreted in terms of gene flow. In his Reply, Jost (2009) points out the strengths of each measure, arguing that D is preferable for measuring allelic differentiation precisely because of its relationship to mutation rate as well as migration, but conceding that GST is preferable as a measure of migration rate itself.

Referees

We owe a debt of gratitude to the large number of individuals who have contributed to the discipline of molecular ecology by reviewing manuscripts for the journal. The following list consists of people who reviewed papers between 1 November 2008 and 31 October 2009.

Duur K. Aanen

Marco Abbiati

K. M. Abbott

Jawad Abdelkrim

Maria Ana Aboim

Keith Adams

Jason Addison

Alexandre Aebi

Ingi Agnarsson

Aneil Agrawal

Andres Aguilar

Ramiro Aguilar

Nuria Agusti

Robert Ahern

Malika Ainouche

Sally Aitken

Mikael Akesson

Shin-ichi Akimoto

Dirk Albach

Susan Alberts

Christian Albrecht

Miguel Alcaide

Ricardo Alia

Dominique Allaine

Gery Allan

Charlotte Allender

Fred W. Allendorf

Rodrigo Almeida

Anthony Almudevar

Tilman Jens Alpermann

Thomas Damm Als

David Althoff

Elena R. Alvarez-Buylla

Rudolf Amann

William Amos

Liselotte W. Andersen

Malte Andersson

Carl André

Aida Andrés

Bernard Angers

Bradley Anholt

Stephen Ansell

Nicola Anthony

Agostinho Antunes

José Miguel Aparicio

Smita Apte

Hitoshi Araki

Filippos A. Aravanopoulos

Elizabeth Archie

William Ardren

Debora Arlt

Doug Armstrong

Karen Armstrong

Sophie Arnaud-Haond

Miquel A. Arnedo

Matt Arnegard

Elizabeth Arnold

Michael L. Arnold

J. W. (Pim) Arntzen

Cheryl Asa

Gail Ashton

Jouni Aspi

Giridhar N. R. Athrey

Nadia Aubin-Horth

Asta Audzijonyte

Frederic Austerlitz

James Austin

Jeremy Austin

Leticia Aviles

Peter Avis

John Avise

Erik Axelsson

David Ayre

Eric Baack

Wieslaw Babik

Thierry Backeljau

Niclas Backstrom

Cecile Bacles

Justin Bagley

Scott Baird

Stuart Baird

Charles Scott Baker

Peter Baker

Theo C. M. Bakker

Sandra Baldauf

N. Balkenhol

Marilyn Ball

François Balloux

Claudia Bank

Jonathan Banks

Sam Banks

Josh Banta

Thelma Barbara

Michael Barker

Marta Barluenga

Timo Barraclough

Rowan Barrett

N. H. Barton

Detlef Bartsch

Frederico Batista

Arnaud Battaile

Emmanuelle Baudry

David Baum

Line Kolind Bay

Jean Beaulieu

A. R. Beaumont

Mark Beaumont

James Beck

Celine Becquet

Trevor Beebee

Madeleine Beekman

Peter Beerli

Dominik Begerow

Luciano Beheregaray

Jasminca Behrmann-Godel

Patricia Beldade

Natalia Belfiore

Alison Bell

Karen Bell

Eva Bellemain

Robert Belshaw

Mandy Benke

Staffan Bensch

Bastian Bentlage

Paul Bentzen

David Berg

Sarah Bergemann

Richard Bergero

Sofia Berlin

Stewart Berlocher

Giacomo Bernardi

Louis Bernier

Patrick Berrebi

R. J. Berry

Karine Berthier

Sabrina Bertin

Giorgio Bertorelle

Martine Berube

Guillaume Besnard

S. Bevins

John Bickham

Martin Bidartondo

Roman Biek

Trina Bilde

Kerstin Bilgmann

Christiane Bittkau

David C. Blackburn

Craig Blackie

Roger Blackman

David Blair

April Blakeslee

F. Guillaume Blanchet

Simon Blanchet

Julie Blanchong

Frank Blattner

Michael S Blouin

Michael Blum

Z. Bochdanovits

Sanne Boessenkool

W. Bogdanowicz

Daniel Bolnick

Gustavo Bonaventure

Jason Bond

Ron Bonett

Francois Bonhomme

Maxime Bonhomme

Aurélie Bonin

Dries Bonte

Jacobus Boomsma

Finn Borchsenius

Seth Bordenstein

Céline Born

David Bos

Oliver Bossdorf

Pierre Boudry

Elizabeth Boulding

Matthieu Boulesteix

Marylène Boulet

Andrew Bourke

David G. Bourne

Pierre Boursot

Kostas Bourtzis

Jean Bousquet

Juan Bouzat

Brian Bowen

Jennifer L. Bowen

Andrew Bower

Rauri C. K. Bowie

Sarah Boyer

Martin Brändle

Ian Bradbury

Sara Branco

Roland Brandl

Daniel Brazeau

Alan Brelsford

Adrian Brennan

Patricia L. R. Brennan

Rick Brenneman

Amanda Bretman

Sophie Breton

Patrícia Brito

Hugh Britten

Martin Broadley

Damien Broderick

Butch Brodie

Thomas Broquet

Richard Brown

Mike Bruford

Douglas J. Bruggeman

Johanne Brunet

Ivano Brunner

Patrick C. Brunner

Thomas D. Bruns

Jessica Bryant

Josef Bryja

Bradley A. Buckley

Marc Buee

Alex Buerkle

Richard J. A. Buggs

Jennifer Buhay

Vincent Buonaccorsi

Frank Burbrink

Theresa Burg

Treena Burgess

Helmut Burgmann

Chris Burridge

Jeremiah W. Busch

Joseph D. Busch

Peter Buston

Margaret Byrne

Rosemary Byrne

Gisella Caccone

Carlos Cadena

Lisandra Caetano

Sara Cahan

Ana Caicedo

Isabel Calderón

Ryan Calsbeek

Erin Cameron

Stephen Cameron

Daniel Campo

Daniele Canestrelli

Mike Canino

José Manuel Cano Arias

Javier Canon

Ignazio Carbone

Monica Cardoso

Marie-Louise Cariou

Matthew Carling

Dave Carlon

Jens Carlsson

Jim Carlton

Ana Carnaval

Angus Carnegie

Salvador Carranza

Scott Carroll

Bryan Carstens

Gary Carvalho

Jorge Casal

Stefano Castiglione

Todd Castoe

Vincent Castric

Michael Caterino

Stephen Cavers

Alf Ceplitis

Martin Cerny

Chris Chabot

Susan Chambers

Yvonne Chan

Demian David Chapman

John Chapman

Mark Chapman

Robert W. Chapman

Marie-Pierre Chapuis

Michel Chapuisat

Audrey Chaput-Bardy

Nathalie Charbonnel

Sylvain Charlat

Deborah Charlesworth

Marie Charpentier

Johel Chaves-Campos

Chaolun Allen Chen

Ming-Shun Chen

Christine Chevillon

Zac Cheviron

T. Y. Chiang

Lounes Chikhi

Philipe Choler

Philippe Christe

Ole Christensen

Mark Christie

Myong Gi Chung

Angelica Cibrian

Roberta Cimmaruta

Claudio Ciofi

M. Ciosi

Keith Clay

Sonya Clegg

Kendall Clements

Andrew Cockburn

M. M. Coelho

Martin Coetzee

Rosane Collevatti

Hans Peter Comes

Steve Compton

Leonardo Congiu

Jan Conn

Peter Convey

Arielle Cooley

Alan Cooper

Steven J. B. Cooper

Jukka Corander

Mathilde Cordellier

Adolfo Cordero

Jean-Marie Cornuet

Charlie Cornwallis

Emmanuel Corse

Anne-Marie Cortesero

Federica Costantini

Joan Cottrell

Aurélie Coulon

Tim Coulson

Alejandra Covarrubias

D. A. Cowan

James A. Coyer

Salvatore Cozzolino

K. J. Craft

Timothy Craig

Eric Crandall

Keith Crandall

Dan Crawford

Douglas Crawford

Teresa J. Crease

Simon Creer

Bernard J. Crespi

Sarah Crews

Charles Criscione

Erika Crispo

Melania Cristescu

Daniel Cristol

Pierre-Andre Crochet

Nils Cronberg

Matt Cronin

Jo Anne Crouch

Mitchell Cruzan

Theresa Culley

Mark Culling

Carina Cunha

Cliff Cunningham

Jason Curtis

Samuel Cushman

Ana Cutrera

Asher D. Cutter

Philip Daborn

Jeffrey DaCosta

Love Dalén

Jeff Dangl

Liliana Davalos

Patrice David

Samantha Davies

T. G. Davies

Angus Davison

Kevin Dawson

Michael Dawson

Marta De Barba

Paul De Barro

Marc de Dinechin

Henrik de Fine Licht

Paul De Ley

Juliette De Meaux

Thierry De Meeus

M. Denise Dearing

Eric DeChaine

Bernd Degen

Bernard Degnan

Sandie Degnan

Francois Delmotte

Linda Delph

John Demboski

Ditte Demontis

Nancy Denslow

Nicolas Derome

Sofie Derycke

Robert DeSalle

Michael DeSalvo

Laurence Despres

Les Dethlefsen

Jeremy Dettman

Andrew DeWoody

Jennifer DeWoody

Anthony Di Fiore

Joseph DiBattista

Christopher Dick

Ian Dickie

Xavier Didelot

Steve DiFazio

Mélanie Dionne

Elke Dittmann

Katrina Dlugosch

Christoph Dobes

Richard Dodd

Julian Dodson

Vera Domingues

Marlis Douglas

Michael Douglas

Greg Douhan

Tom Dowling

Joshua Drew

Christine Dreyer

Bernard Dreyfus

Carlos Driscoll

Devin Drown

Christopher Drummond

Sylvain Dubey

Aurore Dubuffet

Pierre Duchesne

Rachael Dudaniec

Susan Dudley

Alexander Dudnikov

Jeff Dudycha

France Dufresne

Jerome Duminil

Kanesa Duncan

Susie Dunham

Peter Dunn

Lise Dupont

Jean-Dominique Durand

Olivier Duron

David Duvernell

Jan Dvorak

Ian Dworkin

Mark F Dybdahl

Rodney Dyer

John Eadie

Eric Earley

Andrew Eckert

Sara Edge

Danielle Edwards

Ashley N. Egan

S. P. Egan

Dorothee Ehrich

K. C. Ehrlich

Pernille Eidesen

Christophe Eizaguirre

Robert Ekblom

Tomas Ekström

Curt Elderkin

Santiago Elena

Jonathan Ellis

Christopher K. Ellison

Kathryn Elmer

Bert Ely

Igor Emelianov

Brent Emerson

Kevin Emerson

Nancy Endersby

Jan Engelstädter

Philip England

Tag Engstrom

Jéròme Enjalbert

Richard Ennos

Clinton Epps

Deana Erdner

Marcial Escudero

Lauren Esposito

Arnaud Estoup

Guillaume Evanno

Ben Evans

Melissa Evans

Laurent Excoffier

Daniel Förster

Anna Fabiani

Benoit Facon

Bruno Fady

Dan Faith

Daniel Falush

Nann Fangue

Denis Fargette

Cecile Fauvelot

Guido Favia

Nicolas Feau

Jeff Feder

Vadim Fedorov

Bradley Fedy

Chris R. Feldman

Jesús Fernández

Juan Fernandez-Manjarres

Julia Ferrari

Álvaro Ferreira

Gentile Ficetola

Kevin T. Fielman

Jordi Figuerola

Silvia Fineschi

Reiner Finkeldey

Debra Finn

Laura A. Finnegan

Matt Fisher

William Fitt

Mark Fitzparick

Sarah Fitzpatrick

Anthony C. Fiumera

Jon Fjeldsa

Oystein Flagstad

Thomas Flatt

R. C. Fleischer

Ian Fleming

Ann-Britt Florin

Jonathan M. Flowers

Katharina Foerster

Matthieu Foll

D. Foltz

Diego Fontaneto

Marie-Josee Fortin

Jeffrey Foster

Elisabeth Fournier

Mercival Francisco

Olivier Francois

Alain Frantz

Nathalie Frascaria-Lacoste

Ceridwen Fraser

Dylan Fraser

Richard Fredrickson

Helene Freville

Elizabeth Friar

Eyal Fridman

Thomas Friedl

Vicki L. Friesen

Uwe Fritz

Hannu Fritze

William Fry

Jinzhong Fu

Hironobu Fukami

Luca Fumagalli

Daniel Funk

W. Chris Funk

Paola Furla

Duan Gömöry

Anita Göndör

Jürgen Gadau

Oscar Gaggiotti

Pierre-Alexandre Gagnaire

Jean-Michel Gaillard

Kurt Galbreath

Jose Galian

Juan Galindo

Laura Galloway

Hannes Gamper

Li-zhi Gao

Dany Garant

Matteo Garbelotto

Fernando Garcia Arenal

Francisco García de León

A. Garcia-Dorado

Eva Garcia-Vazquez

Cristina García

Michael G. Gardner

Pauline Garnier-Gere

Stéphane Garnier

Melissa Garren

Ryan C. Garrick

Carlos Garza

John Gaskin

Ruth Gates

Myriam Gaudeul

Sergey Gavrilets

Eli Geffen

David Geiser

József Geml

Martin Genner

Armando Geraldes

Pierre Gerard

Sophie Gerber

Gabriele Gerlach

Vincenzo Gervasi

Cesare Gessler

Cam Ghalambor

A. J. Gharrett

Adrian Gibbs

H. Lisle Gibbs

Peter E. Gibbs

Greg Gibson

Sabine Giessler

Matthew E. Gifford

Yosav Gilad

Thomas Gilbert

John Gilleard

Tatiana Giraud

Gonzalo Giribet

M. A. Gitzendanner

Pierre Gladieux

Frederick Goetz

Pablo Goicoechea

Koichi Goka

John Gold

Caren S. Goldberg

Anne Goldizen

Montserrat Gomendio

Daniel Gomez-Uchida

Africa Gomez

Zachariah Gompert

Nikolay Goncharov

Santiago González-Martínez

Manuela González-Suárez

Eva Gonzales

J. M. Good

Sara Goodacre

Michael Goodisman

Simon Goodman

Steve Goodwin

Erica Goss

Jerome Goudet

Tamar Goulet

Dave Goulson

Annette Govindarajan

Christoph Grünig

William Grant

Alessandro Grapputo

Paolo Gratton

David Gray

Felipe Grazziotin

Matthew Greenstone

Gregg Grether

Ashleigh Griffin

Rob Griffiths

Victoria Grillo

Delphine Grivet

Ewald Groenewald

Briana Lee Gross

Christina Grozinger

Catherine E. Grueber

Niklaus Grunwald

Xingyou Gu

Maria Pilar Guerreiro

Felix Gugerli

Paul Gugger

Alessia Guggisberg

Frederic Guillaume

Gilles Guillot

Laure Guillou

Bruno Guinand

Elena Gómez Díaz

Jaro Guzinski

Christoph R. Haag

Fredrik Haas

Jarrod Hadfield

Michael Hadfield

Gregory Haenel

Bernd Haenfling

Matthew Hahn

Marie Hale

Fabien Halkett

Richard Hamelin

Richard C. Hamelin

Ruth Hamill

Matthew B. Hamilton

Rob Hammond

Arndt Hampe

Jim Hamrick

William Hanage

Robert Haney

Michael M. Hansen

Ilkka Hanski

Thor Hanson

Sveinn Hanssen

Bengt Hansson

Yoshie Hanzawa

Britta Hardesty

Nicole Hardiman

Christopher Hardy

Matthew Hare

Bettina Harr

Reid Harris

Stephen Harris

Michael Hart

Martin Hartmann

James Harwood

Kristian Hassel

Martin Hasselmann

Ben Hatchwell

Heidi Hauffe

Lorenz Hauser

Mark Haussmann

J. Susanne Hauswaldt

Dana Hawley

Paul Hayes

Stephanie Hazlitt

Daniel D. Heath

Gerald Heckel

Lars Hedenäs

Dennis Hedgecock

Blair Hedges

Philip W Hedrick

Matthew Hegarty

Yael Heifetz

George E Heimpel

Berthold Heinze

Jurgen Heinze

Edward Heist

Joseph Heitman

Heikki Helanterä

Michael Hellberg

Ines Hellmann

David Hembry

Jakob Hemmer-Henson

Andrew Hendry

Philippe Henry

Robert Henry

Tom Herman

Carlos M. Herrera

Matthew Herron

Myriam Heuertz

Randall Hewes

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Jody Hey

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Anthony Hickey

Ari Mikko Hietala

Sabine Hille

Sari J. Himanen

Ann Hirsch

Simon Hiscock

Simon Ho

Galice Hoarau

Anders Hobaek

Marion Hoehn

Hopi E. Hoekstra

A. R. Hoelzel

Heribert Hofer

Eric Hoffman

Joe Hoffman

Ary Hoffmann

Michael Hofreiter

Nils Hogberg

Ian Hogg

Rolf Holderegger

Nathaniel Holland

John Holsinger

Yuichi Hongoh

Michael Hood

Elvira Hörandl

Agnès Horn

Daniel Howard

N. Howell

Jennifer G. Howeth

Tina Hu

Hongwen Huang

Shong Huang

Steve Hubbard

K. Huber

Nicolas Hubert

Matthew Hudson

Robert Hueter

Colin Hughes

Colin R. Hughes

David Hughes

Jane M. Hughes

Karen Hughes

Kimberly Hughes

Greg Hurst

Tina Huyse

Kamal Ibrahim

Debora Iglesias-Rosriguez

Petteri Ilmonen

Katriina Ilves

Simone Immler

Francisco Infante

Krista Ingram

Par K. Ingvarsson

Duncan Irschick

Darren Irwin

Antonio Izzo

Kim Jaatinen

Sabine Jacobsen

Hans Jacquemyn

Jef Jaeger

Mattias Jakobsson

Tim James

Timothy James

Ian Jamieson

Jan Janecka

Eric Janson

Kirstin Janssen

Daniel Janzen

Juan Pablo Jaramillo-Correa

Patricia Jargeat

Philippe Jarne

Susan Jarvi

Robert Jehle

Annette Jensen

Henrik Jensen

Julie Jeukens

Chris Jiggins

Frank Jiggins

Hanna Johannesson

Kerstin Johannesson

Helena Johansson

Jeff A. Johnson

Jerald Johnson

Michael Johnson

Paul C. D. Johnson

Philip Johnson

Warren Johnson

Thibaut Jombart

Adam G. Jones

F. A. Jones

Stéphane Joost

Bjarte Jordal

Mark Jordan

Steve Jordan

Pedro Jordano

Per Erik Jorde

Véronique Jorge

Tove H. Jorgensen

Leo Joseph

Lou Jost

Deirdre Joy

Carlos Juan

Alistair Jump

Dietmar Kültz

Rolf Kümmerli

Axel Künstner

Joachim W. Kadereit

Renaud Kaeuffer

Susan Kalisz

Jan Kammenga

Nolan Kane

Le Kang

Peter Kappeler

Steve Karl

Sten Ola Härje Karlsson

Sophie Karrenberg

Karin Kassahn

Haruo Katakura

Takeshi Kawakami

Masakado Kawata

Roland Kays

Michael Kearney

Irene Keller

Laurent Keller

Bart Kempenaers

Katherine Kendall

Scott Keogh

Carole Kerdelhué

Gerald Kerth

Chris Kettle

Nusha Keyghobadi

James Kijas

Rebecca Kilner

Charles Kimwele

Andrew King

Joshua King

Matthew King

Michael Kinnison

Matias Kirst

Takushi Kishida

Jun Kitano

Hiroshi Kitazato

Finn Kjellberg

Etienne Klein

Richard Kliman

Leslie Knapp

Mairi Knight

Rob Knight

Theresa Knopp

Lacey Knowles

Marcus Koch

Sarah D. Kocher

Walter Koenig

Jason Kolbe

Niclas Kolm

Irving Kornfield

Peter Korsten

Daria Koscinski

Britt Koskella

Petr Kotlik

Ken Kozak

Michael Krützen

Elliot Krafsur

Manuela Krakau

Alan Krakauer

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S. L. Krauss

Antoine Kremer

Annette Kretzer

Torsten Kristensen

Daniel Kronauer

Marcus R. Kronforst

Matthias Kropf

Shawn Kuchta

Cris Kuhlemeier

Ariel Kushmaro

Thom Kuyper

Laura Kvist

Christopher Kyle

Susanna López-Legentil

Marc-Andre Lachance

Hania Lada

Benedicte Lafay

Zhao Lai

Todd C. LaJeunesse

Kathrin Lampert

Melanie Lancaster

Stacey L. Lance

Christian Landry

Richard Lankau

Carlo R. Largiader

Maarten H. D. Larmuseau

Peter Foged Larsen

Allan Larson

Greger Larson

Lena Larsson

Martin Lascoux

Emily Latch

Amparo Latorre

Robert Latta

Sébastien Lavergne

Shane Lavery

Lori Lawson Handley

Amy Lawton-Rauh

Valérie Le Corre

Adam Leaché

Janet Leak-Garcia

Dean Leavitt

Paul Leberg

Raphael Leblois

Jean-Baptiste Ledoux

Julie Lee-Yaw

Hong Lee

Patricia Lee

Elizabeth A. Leger

Tuomas Leinonen

Andrew Leitch

Christophe Lemaire

Emily Lemmon

Tobias Leander Lenz

Jennifer Leonard

Olivier Lepais

Michael P. Lesser

Harilaos Lessios

Peter Letcher

Adrian Leuchtmann

C. Andre Levesque

Mia Levine

D. R. Levitan

Jan Li

Shou-Hsien Li

Wang Li

Liang Liang

Olof Liberg

Sascha Liepelt

Jan Lifjeld

Erik Lilleskov

Björn Lindahl

Celeste Linde

Johan Lindell

Peter Linder

Tim Linksvayer

T. J. Little

T. Littlewood

Jianquan Liu

Brent Lockwood

Volker Loeschcke

Claire Loiseau

Jason Londo

Robert Long

P. Lopez-Garcia

Carlos Lopez-Vaamonde

Eline Lorenzen

Stephen Lougheed

Ed Louis

Sara Lourie

Connie Lovejoy

Irby Lovette

David Lowry

Hugh Loxdale

Jeffrey D. Lozier

Bao-Rong Lu

Arne Ludwig

Paul Lukacs

Dieter Lukas

Rosaura Luna

Bruce Lyon

Thomas Lyrholm

Hannu Mäkinen

Barbara Mable

Andrew MacColl

Beth MacDougall-Shackleton

A. S. MacDougall

Carlos A. Machado

Ryuji Machida

Milos Macholan

Nathalie Machon

Richard Mack

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Thomas Madsen

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Christine Maggs

Anna Malacrida

Jesús E. Maldonado

Jim Mallet

Carolyn Malmstrom

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F. Manni

Paula Marchelli

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Patrick Mardulyn

Gabriele Margos

Stefano Mariani

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Jeff Markert

Jeffrey Markert

Luana Maroja

Robin Marrs

Paolo Marsan

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David C. Marshall

Wyth Marshall

David Martin-Galvez

Andrew Martin

Noland Martin

Maira Martínez-Alonso

Begoña Martínez-Cruz

Esperanza Martínez-Romero

Iñigo Martínez-Solano

Silvia Mascheretti

Xulio Maside

Ramon Massana

Susan Masta

Peter Mather

Lauren Mathews

Sarah Mathews

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Stephen Matter

Conrad Matthee

Erik Matthysen

Mikhail Matz

Jesus A. Mavarez

Taylor Maxwell

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Freider Mayer

Scott McCairns

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John McCormack

Karen McCoy

Allan McDevitt

Catherine McFadden

Phil McGinnity

Stephen McKechnie

Niall McKeown

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John Measey

Monica Medina

Mariah Meek

Emese Meglécz

Thomas Mehner

Rudolf Meier

Patrick Meirmans

José Melo-Ferreira

Joachim Mergeay

Santiago Merino

Sarah Mesnick

Jackie Metheny

Axel Meyer

Claire-Lise Meyer

Eli Meyer

Wieland Meyer

Themis Michailides

Johan Michaux

Andrew Michel

Maria Pia Miglietta

Alexander Mikheyev

Borja Mila

Michael Milgroom

Michel Milinkovitch

Craig Millar

Allison Miller

Kimberly A. Miller

Kristina M. Miller

Scott Mills

Emmanuel Milot

Vanya Milteva

Aria Minder

Yuki Minegishi

Patricia Mirol

Charles Mitter

Jeff Mitton

Kenyon Mobley

Maria Moccia

Karen E. Mock

Stephen Mockford

Michael Moeller

Igor Mokrousov

Jean Molina

Stefano Mona

Michael T. Monaghan

H. Monenegro

Claudine Montgelard

Arne O. Mooers

Mari Moora

Jean Sebastien Moore

Jennifer Ann Moore

Paloma Moran

Paul Moran

Phillip A. Morin

Craig Moritz

Robin F. A. Moritz

Peter L. Morrell

Cheryl L. Morrison

Michael Morrissey

Alex Mosseler

Christophe Mougel

B. Mouhamadou

Leonie Moyle

Patrik Mraz

Jakob C. Mueller

Jessica Muhlin

Christina Muirhead

Daniel Mulcahy

Joaquín Muñoz

Helen Murphy

Melanie Murphy

Nicholas P. Murphy

Robert W. Murphy

Tomás E. Murray

Benoit Nabholz

Yamama Naciri

Satoshi Nagai

Eric Nagy

Shinichi Nakagawa

Marie-Claire Namroud

Francesco Nardi

Eugenia Naro-Maciel

Shawn R. Narum

John Nason

Arcadi Navarro

David Neal

Bryan Neff

Riccardo Negrini

Joseph F. Neigel

Brett A. Neilan

Matthew E. Neilson

Maurine Neiman

Robert Ness

Julio Neto

Elizabeth Neves

Helen Neville

Ryan Newton

Thongchai Ngamprasertwong

Chris C. Nice

Violaine Nicolas

Einar E. Nielsen

K. Klitgaard Nielsen

Rasmus Nielsen

Matthew Niemiller

Y. Niimura

Anna Nilsson

Jan-Åke Nilsson

Johan Nilsson

Les R. Noble

Arne Nolte

Arne W. Nolte

Brice Noonan

Mohammed Noor

Nausicaa Noret

John Novembre

Richard Noyes

Daniela Nunes

Flavia Nunes

Sergey V. Nuzhdin

Hilde Nybom

Kerry O’Donnell

Bob O’Hara

Kathleen O’Malley

Brian O’Meara

Darren Obbard

Sylvie Oddou-Muratorio

Paul Ode

Katharina Oetjen

Masashi Ohara

Issei Ohshima

Miki Okada

Norihiro Okada

Ben Oldroyd

Jeffrey Oliver

Matthew Oliver

Tom Oliver

Hakan Olsen

Kenneth M. Olsen

Matthew Olson

Angela R. Omilian

Lars Opgenoorth

Marc Oremus

Ludovic Orlando

Joaquín Ortego

Guillermo Orti

Steven Orzack

Tatsuo Oshida

Alicia Oshlack

Chris Osovitz

Markus Öst

Kjartan Ostbye

Sarah P. Otto

Richard Ottvall

Jennifer R. Ovenden

Andrew Overall

Robin Owen

Geoffrey Oxford

Ken Oyama

Jürgen Pörschmann

Annalise Paaby

Maciej Pabijan

J. A. Padilla

R. E. Page

Ken Paige

Stefan Palm

Clarisse Palma-Silva

Per J. Palsboll

Friso P. Palstra

Pekka Pamilo

Mathieu Paoletti

Riccardo Papa

Roberto Papa

Theodore Papenfuss

Thomas Parchman

Laura Parducci

Lorraine Pariset

Christian Parisod

Robert Park

Geoff Parker

Matt Parker

Patricia G. Parker

Aristeidis Parmakelis

John Parnell

Jeri Parrent

Kim M Parsons

Linda Partridge

Luis Pastene

Simit Patel

Adrian Paterson

Steve Paterson

Octavio S. Paulo

Steffen Pauls

Ovidiu Paun

Anton Pauw

David Pavlacky

Teresa Pawlovska

Jan Pawlowski

Robert J. Paxton

Devon E. Pearse

Kabir Peay

Jean Peccoud

Jan Pechenik

Jes S. Pedersen

Kamilla Pedersen

Carlos Pedros-Alio

Marcus Peery

Katja Peijnenburg

R. Peiro

Perrine Pelosse

Josephine Pemberton

Taina Pennanen

J. L. Perez-Eman

Sílvia Pérez-Espona

Rocio Perez-Portela

Javier Pérez-Tris

Jakob Pernthaler

Matthieu Perret

Nicolas Perrin

Martina Peter

Eric Petit

Rémy J. Petit

Markus Pfenninger

Jaroslav Pialek

Xavier Picó

Stuart Piertney

Francesc Piferrer

Rosalia Pineiro Portela

Catarina Pinho

Alice Pinto

Bernard Pintureau

D. Piñero

Chris Pires

C. W. Pirk

Barry Pittendrigh

Gordon R. Plague

Serge Planes

Andrea Pluess

Grant H. Pogson

Jocelyn Poissant

Jitka Polechova

Paddy Pomeroy

Francois Pompanon

John Pool

Mihai Pop

Magnus Popp

Teresita M. Porter

Rory James Post

Erik Postma

Celine Poux

Peter Prentis

P. B. Price

Tom Price

Trevor Price

Craig Primmer

Anne Pringle

Victoria Pritchard

Karin Pritsch

Gabriele Procaccini

Michael Proctor

Paulo A. Prodohl

Simone Prospero

Jim Prosser

Jim Provan

Laura Prugh

Oscar Puebla

Benoit Pujol

Jose Martin Pujolar

Jennifer Lyn Purrenhage

Michael Purugganan

Tanja Pyhäjärvi

Robert Alexander Pyron

Joseph Quattro

David C. Queller

Mauricio Quesada

Nicole Quinn

Javier Quinteiro

Ute Radespiel

Jacek Radwan

Towfique Raj

Uma Ramakrishnan

David Rand

Deborah Randall

Ettore Randi

Tom Ranker

Domenico Rau

Stefan Rauschen

Dina Raveh

Paul D. Rawson

Ernesto Recuero

Dawn M. Reding

Joshua Reece

D. H. Reed

Robert Reed

Steve Rehner

Jay Reichman

Noah Reid

Joaquim Cardoso Reis

Christoph Reisch

Matthew Reudink

Thorsten B. H. Reusch

Max Reuter

Philippe Reymond

Graham Reynolds

David Reznick

Olin E. Rhodes

Ignacio Ribera

Christina Richards

Aaron Richardson

David Richardson

Adam Richman

Ciro Rico

Brett R. Riddle

Caroline E. Ridley

Markus Riegler

Cynthia Riginos

Thomas Rinderer

Sébastien Rioux Paquettte

Kermit Ritland

Markus S. Ritz

S. Craig Roberts

Trina Roberts

H. M. Robertson

Jeanne Robertson

Gene Robinson

Stacie Robinson

Juan Robledo-Arnuncio

Axayacatl Rocha-Olivares

Luiz A. Rocha

George K. Roderick

Mauricio Rodriguez-Lanetty

Alex D. Rogers

Hilary J. Rogers

Marco Rohlfs

Sievert A. Rohwer

Emilio Rolán-Alvarez

Isabel Roldán-Ruiz

Joe Roman

Michal Ronikier

Dan Rosauer

Benjamin M Rosenthal

Kenneth G. Ross

Maurizio Rossetto

Stephen Rossiter

Corinne Rouland-Lefevre

Graham Rowe

Lukas Ruber

Manuel Ruedi

Olav Rueppell

Eduardo Ruiz

Fred Rumsey

Minna Ruokonen

Estelle Russek-Cohen

Amy L. Russell

Daniel Ruzzante

Paul D. Rymer

Jan Sørensen

Benjamin N. Sacks

T. B. Sackton

Glenn-Peter Sætre

Eric Saillant

Ann K. Sakai

Nicolas Salamin

Marco Salemi

Patricia I. R. Salgueiro

Armel Salmon

Nicola Salomone

Kristin Saltonstall

Walter Salzburger

Sarah Samadi

Julianno Sambatti

Karen Samis

Nathan Sanders

Tao Sang

Federica Santolamazza

Scott Ross Santos

Anna Santure

Pierre Saumitou-Laprade

Outi Savolainen

Massimo Scandura

Peter Schönswetter

Sarah Schaack

Urs Schaffner

Helmut Schaschl

Shannon P. Schechter

Sonja J. Scheffer

Christoph Scheidegger

Ellen Antje Schlüns

Christian Schlötterer

Daniel R. Schlaepfer

Martin Schlegel

Daniel Schlenk

Ulrich Schliewen

Michael Schloter

Philipp Schlueter

Paul Schmid-Hempel

Thomas Schmitt

Andrew F. Schnabel

Korbinian Schneeberger

Chris Schneider

Dan Schoen

Chris Schofield

Nicholas Schork

Hinrich Schulenburg

Jennifer Schultz

Andrew Schurko

Mark Schutze

Tanja Schwander

Christopher Schwartz

Michael K. Schwartz

Jodi Schwarz

Andrea Schwarzbach

Michael R. Schwemm

Klaus Schwenk

Nina Schwensow

Caroline Scotti-Saintagne

Ivan Scotti

Kim Scribner

Jeremy Searle

Jean Secondi

Jennifer M. Seddon

Ole Seehausen

Gernot Segelbacher

Jon Seger

Kari A. Segraves

Ravinder Marius Sehgal

Kim Selkoe

Perttu Seppa

Ester A. Serrão

David Serre

Stein Sæther

J. M. Sevigny

Carla Sgro

Aaron Shafer

Beth Shapiro

Thomas Sharpton

Paul W. Shaw

Tonya Shearer

Frederick H. Sheldon

Kristen A. Shepard

Lara Shepherd

Suhua Shi

Takahito Shikano

Kenichiro Shimatani

Kentaro Shimizu

Andrew Short

Jacqui A. Shykoff

Thomas N. Sieber

Mark Simmons

Ellen Simms

Chris Simon

Alastair Simpson

Stephen J. Simpson

Andrew Singer

Lalji Singh

Jack Sites Jr

Kaarina Sivonen

Skúli Skúlason

Bernard Slippers

Tanja Slotte

Christian Smith

Christopher Irwin Smith

Christopher R. Smith

Deborah Smith

Peter Smith

Steve J. Smith

Peter E. Smouse

Marinus Smulders

Antonio Sole-Cava

Daniela Soleri

Pam S. Soltis

Simone Sommer

Michael Sorenson

Teiji Sota

Konstantinos Sotiropoulos

Erik E. Sotka

Joe Spatafora

Stephen Spear

Garth Spellman

Felix A. Sperling

Yuri Springer

Paul Spruell

T. Stadler

Ann Stapleton

Mark Statham

Christian Stauffer

Jan Stefka

Silke Stefanie Steiger

Sebastian Steinfartz

Michael E. Steiper

Hans Stenoien

Wolfgang Stephan

Carol Stepien

Tomasz Stepkowski

Jamie R. Stevens

Mark I. Stevens

John R. Stinchcombe

John Stireman

Kelly Stiver

Judy Stone

Andrew Storfer

Allan E. Strand

Tanja Strand

Joan Strassmann

Petr Strelkov

Eva H. Stukenbrock

Christian Sturmbauer

Stephen Sturzenbaum

Andrew V. Suarez

Katherine Suding

B. K. Sullivan

Jack Sullivan

Liselotte Sundstrom

Sevan Suni

Paul Sunnucks

Yann Surget-Groba

Leonie Suter

Duncan Robert Sutherland

Emma Svensson

Nathan Swenson

Gregory A. Sword

Michel Sylvestre

William O. C. Symondson

Alfred E. Szmidt

Marta Szulkin

Juan Túnez

K. Ryo Takahasi

Naoki Takebayashi

David Andrew Tallmon

Andrea C. Taylor

D. R. Taylor

Derek J. Taylor

Martin Taylor

Sabrina Taylor

Amber Teacher

Christoph Tebbe

Aurelien Tellier

Helen Temple

Allan Templeton

Cédric Tentelier

Carolyn K. Tepolt

Niina Tero

Meike Teschke

Peter Teske

Christine E. Thacker

Robert Thacker

Christophe Thebaud

Veronique Theriault

Nina Therkildsen

W. Kelley Thomas

Stacey Lee Thompson

Peter Tiffin

Martijn Timmermans

Mari Tollefsrud

Charlotte Tollenaere

Nobuhiro Tomaru

Robert Toonen

Amy Toth

Pascal Touzet

Michael Traugott

Tom Tregenza

Karin Tremetsberger

Steve Trewick

Andreas Tribsch

Ludwig Triest

Peter Trontelj

Neil D. Tsutsui

Jenny Tung

Julie Turgeon

George F. Turner

Thomas L. Turner

Tom Turner

Wendy Tymchuk

Line Ugelvig

Tobias Uller

Karin E. Ulstrup

Nora Underwood

Mark Ungerer

Peter Unmack

Sylvain Ursenbacher

Naohiro Uwatoko

Thomas Uzzell

Juha-Pekka Vähä

Risto Vainola

A. Valentini

Myriam Valero

Mario Vallejo-Marin

Steven M. Vamosi

Antoinette van der Kuyl

Marlien van der Merwe

Marco van der Velde

Marcela van Loo

Arie van Noordwijk

Cock van Oosterhout

Madeleine van Oppen

Nico M. Van Straalen

Bettine J. Van Vuuren

Amy G. Vandergast

Alain Vanderpoorten

Pablo Vargas

Edward L. Vargo

Anti Vasemagi

Xavier Vekemans

David Veliz

K. J. F. Verhoeven

Simon Verhulst

Geerat Vermeij

Rudi Verovnik

Hege Vestheim

Michel Veuille

Sara Via

Frederique Viard

Cristina Vieira

Linda Vigilant

Sacha Nicole Vignieri

Usha Vijayraghavan

Carles Vila

Dan Villeneuve

Renaud Vitalis

Johannes C. Vogel

Peter Vogel

Claus Vogl

Filip Volckaert

Steven V. Vollmer

Sophie von der Heyden

Arndt von Haeseler

Bernhard Von Hagen

Jan von Rönn

Thomas von Rintelen

William Von Sigler

Pascal Vonlanthen

Christian Robert Voolstra

Christoph Vorburger

Robert C. Vrijenhoek

Helene Wagner

Niklas Wahlberg

Giles Waines

Peter Waldeck

Andrew Walker

Faith M. Walker

Graham Wallis

Eric Waltari

Ian Wang

Jinliang Wang

Liuyang Wang

Xiao-Quan Wang

Robin S. Waples

Robert D. Ward

John P. Wares

Jonathan Waters

Phillip C. Watts

Jesse N. Weber

Lucy Webster

Dylan Weese

David Weetman

K. Mathias Wegner

Mylène Weill

Cynthia Weinig

Mason Weinrich

J. T. Weir

Virginia Weis

David W. Weisrock

Steven Weiss

Thomas Weisse

Mark Welch

Maren Wellenreuther

Jonathan Wendel

Roman Wenne

Tom Wenseleers

Fernanda P. Werneck

Silke Werth

Joan West

Helena Westerdahl

Dave Westneat

Daniel Wetzel

C. W. Wheat

Diana Wheeler

Rachel Whitaker

Bradley N. White

Andrew R. Whiteley

Noah Whiteman

Barbara Whitlock

Michael Whitlock

Ken Whitney

Linda A. Whittingham

Thomas Wiehe

Sébastien Wielgoss

Andres Wiemken

John Wiens

Amity Wilczek

Craig Wilding

Lena Wilfert

Anne Willems

Yvonne Willi

Dean A. Williams

Alastair J. Wilson

Alex C. C. Wilson

Chris Wilson

Nerida Wilson

Paul J. Wilson

Tony Wilson

Brenda D. Wingfield

Rick Winterbottom

Keith Woeste

Jochen Wolf

Paul Wolf

Matt Wood

Troy Wood

Scott Woolbright

James Worth

Jessica Worthington Wilmer

Stephen I. Wright

Tesfaye Wubet

Jianping Xu

Sarah Beth Yakimowski

Glenn Yannic

Yoko Yatabe

Sam Yeaman

Andrew Young

J. Peter W. Young

Larry Young

Vincent Young

Douglas Yu

Jun Yu

Jonathan Yuen

R. Yukilevich

Tamaki Yuri

Frank E. Zachos

Inga Zeisset

Tyler Stephen Zemlak

Ai-bing Zhang

De-Xing Zhang

Libing Zhang

Birgit Ziegenhagen

Robert M. Zink

Joe Zuccarello