Massively parallel 454-sequencing of fungal communities in Quercus spp. ectomycorrhizas indicates seasonal dynamics in urban and rural sites


  • Jumpponen is interested on the controlling mechanisms of microbial communities. He is currently investigating on the primary mechanisms that dictate the compositional differences between urban and rural fungal communities inhabiting tree roots and foliage. Jones is a research scientist at the University of Georgia’s Georgia Genomics Facility, where he leads the next generation sequencing group. His current interests are in the application of next generation sequencing to population and community genetics. Mattox is the City Forester for the City of Manhattan. He is interested in the maintenance of a diverse arboreal portfolio in urban environments. Yaege is interested in genetics of fungi used in industrial and food fermentation. She has investigated genetics and transformation of red rice mold Monascus purpureus for pigment production and its potential as a fungal model for production of fungal metabolites.

Ari Jumpponen, Fax: 1 785 532 6653; E-mail:


We analysed two sites within and outside an urban development in a rural background to estimate the fungal richness, diversity and community composition in Quercus spp. ectomycorrhizas using massively parallel 454-sequencing in combination with DNA-tagging. Our analyses indicated that shallow sequencing (∼150 sequences) of a large number of samples (192 in total) provided data that allowed identification of seasonal trends within the fungal communities: putative root-associated antagonists and saprobes that were abundant early in the growing season were replaced by common ectomycorrhizal fungi in the course of the growing season. Ordination analyses identified a number of factors that were correlated with the observed communities including host species as well as soil organic matter, nutrient and heavy metal enrichment. Overall, our application of the high throughput 454 sequencing provided an expedient means for characterization of fungal communities.