Retracted: MHC diversity and differential exposure to pathogens in kestrels (Aves: Falconidae)



This article is corrected by:

  1. Errata: Retraction Volume 22, Issue 4, 1185, Article first published online: 25 January 2013

Miguel Alcaide, Fax: +1 617-495-5667; E-mail:


Pathogen diversity is thought to drive major histocompatibility complex (MHC) polymorphism given that host’s immune repertories are dependent on antigen recognition capabilities. Here, we surveyed an extensive community of pathogens (= 35 taxa) and MHC diversity in mainland versus island subspecies of the Eurasian kestrel Falco tinnunculus and in a sympatric mainland population of the phylogenetically related lesser kestrel Falco naumanni. Insular subspecies are commonly exposed to impoverished pathogen communities whilst different species’ ecologies and contrasting life-history traits may lead to different levels of pathogen exposure. Although specific host traits may explain differential particular infections, overall pathogen diversity, richness and prevalence were higher in the truly cosmopolitan, euriphagous and long-distance disperser Eurasian kestrel than in the estenophagous, steppe-specialist, philopatric but long-distance migratory lesser kestrel. Accordingly, the continental population of Eurasian kestrels displayed a higher number (64 vs. 49) as well as more divergent alleles at both MHC class I and class II loci. Detailed analyses of amino acid diversity revealed that significant differences between both species were exclusive to those functionally important codons comprising the antigen binding sites. The lowest pathogen burdens and the smallest but still quite divergent set of MHC alleles (n = 16) were found in island Eurasian kestrels, where the rates of allele fixation at MHC loci seem to have occurred faster than at neutral markers. The results presented in this study would therefore support the role of pathogen diversity and abundance in shaping patterns of genetic variation at evolutionary relevant MHC genes.