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Table S1 Sampling localities of Populus balsamifera.

Table S2 Pairwise FST among populations.

Table S3 Hierarchical analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) for 412 SNP loci genotyped for 474 individuals of balsam poplar. Samples were grouped into 34 populations, clustered into 3 regional demes identified by Bayesian clustering. Significance was assessed with 10,000 permutations of the data.

Table S4 Tajima’s D estimated by locus and population. Populations fixed for a single haplotypes are undefined for Tajima’s D and are reported as “n/a”.

Table S5 Inference of recent migrants from Structure assignments.

Fig. S1 Tests of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for the 423 SNP loci. Points in red are loci that were removed from further analyses due to extreme deviation from the empirical distribution.

Fig. S2 Individual assignment results from Structure clustering for increasing models of K.

Fig. S3 Principal components analysis (PCA) of population allele frequencies at 412 SNPs. PCA was performed using the R package of P. Legendre.

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