Plant population genetic surveys are starting to take full advantage of technological advances in genotyping methods and of methodological advances in demographic inference. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Keller et al. (2010) illustrate this trend with a particularly convincing study of rangewide genetic variation in a North American poplar, using both SNP and sequence data. They first investigate population genetic structure by estimating the most likely number of genetic clusters using a more formal approach than most other studies to date. They proceed by estimating gene flow among the inferred populations and by testing predictions on the distribution of low frequency alleles derived from recent work on range expansions.