• ecological genetics;
  • evolutionary medicine;
  • host–parasite interactions;
  • parasitology;
  • protists;
  • species interactions


Although malaria parasites infecting non-human primates are important models for human malaria, little is known of the ecology of infection by these parasites in the wild. We extensively sequenced cytochrome b (cytb) of malaria parasites (Apicomplexa: Haemosporida) from free-living southeast Asian monkeys Macaca nemestrina and Macaca fascicularis. The two most commonly observed taxa were Plasmodium inui and Hepatocystis sp., but certain other sequences did not cluster closely with any previously sequenced species. Most of the major clades of parasites were found in both Macaca species, and the two most commonly occurring parasite infected the two Macaca species at approximately equal levels. However, P. inui showed evidence of genetic differentiation between the populations infecting the two Macaca species, suggesting limited movement of this parasite among hosts. Moreover, coinfection with Plasmodium and Hepatocystis species occurred significantly less frequently than expected on the basis of the rates of infection with either taxon alone, suggesting the possibility of competitive exclusion. The results revealed unexpectedly complex communities of Plasmodium and Hepatocystis taxa infecting wild southeast Asian monkeys. Parasite taxa differed with respect to both the frequency of between-host movement and their frequency of coinfection.