Table S1 Pairwise Fst values among all Hawaiian sites and Johnston Atoll (below diagonal). FDR corrected P-values presented above diagonal. Significant values are shown in bold

Fig. S1 Colony size distributions of samples collected from the Hawaiian Islands and Johnston Atoll based on length of longest axis do not show a systematic geographic effect of colony size. Three size categories were defined as ≤40, 41–90, and >90 cm (small, medium and large respectively) for longest axis length. Site abbreviations are as in Table 2. Asterisks indicate sites with significant differences (P <  0.05 after FDR correction) from others; MA was different from all others except for FF, and FF was different from all others.

Fig. S2 Plots of the mean log likelihood of the data [L(K)] and Evanno’s ΔK statistic (A and B respectively; y-axes) as generated by the program structure harvester for all 10 Hawaiian sites and Johnston Atoll showing that K =  2 is the best solution. In both graphs the number of putative population clusters used in the structure analysis (K) is presented on the x-axis.

Fig. S3 Rarefaction curves of allelic richness as calculated by the program ADZE for Johnston Atoll and the 10 Hawaiian sites [individually and combined (HA all)] showing that curves approach their asymptote at sample sizes >10. Site abbreviations as in Table 2.

Fig. S4 Plots of permuted means from five randomly selected structure runs for K =  3 and 4 (A and B respectively) and results from structure at K =  2 with Johnston samples exluded (C). Plots of permuted means of three parallel chains from instruct at K =  2, 3 and 4 (D, E and F respectively) do not show evidence of population structure at K >  2. Probability of membership of individuals from each sampling site (n = 11) in distinct population clusters (different colors) is indicated by the y-axis. Sampling locations are identified along the x-axis. Sites are separated by vertical black lines.

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