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Diversity and infection prevalence of endosymbionts in natural populations of the chestnut weevil: relevance of local climate and host plants



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    • Present address: Division of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan.

    • Present address: Hakubi Center, Kyoto University, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan.


    1. National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba 305-8566, Japan
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Takema Fukatsu, Fax: +81 29 861 6080; E-mail:


Many insects are ubiquitously associated with multiple endosymbionts, whose infection patterns often exhibit spatial and temporal variations. How such endosymbiont variations are relevant to local adaptation of the host organisms is of ecological interest. Here, we report a comprehensive survey of endosymbionts in natural populations of the chestnut weevil Curculio sikkimensis, whose larvae are notorious pests of cultivated chestnuts and also infest acorns of various wild oaks. From 968 insects representing 55 localities across the Japanese Archipelago and originating from 10 host plant species, we identified six distinct endosymbiont lineages, namely Curculioniphilus, Sodalis, Serratia, Wolbachia, Rickettsia and Spiroplasma, at different infection frequencies (96.7%, 12.8%, 82.3%, 82.5%, 28.2% and 6.8%, respectively) and with different geographical distribution patterns. Multiple endosymbiont infections were very common; 3.18 ± 0.61 (ranging from 1.74 to 5.50) endosymbionts per insect on average in each of the local populations. Five pairs of endosymbionts (CurculioniphilusSerratia, CurculioniphilusWolbachia, SodalisRickettsia, WolbachiaRickettsia and RickettsiaSpiroplasma) co-infected the same host individuals more frequently than expected, while infections with Serratia and Wolbachia were negatively correlated to each other. Infection frequencies of the endosymbionts were significantly correlated with climatic and ecological factors: for example, higher Sodalis, Wolbachia and Rickettsia infections at localities of higher temperature; lower Wolbachia and Rickettsia infections at localities of greater snowfall; and higher Curculioniphilus, Sodalis, Serratia, Wolbachia and Rickettsia infections on acorns than on chestnuts. These patterns are discussed in relation to potential host–endosymbiont co-evolution via local adaptation across geographical populations.