Table S1Sturnus vulgaris mtDNA control region primer sequences.

Table S2 Across-year within-site sample size (N) with pairwise exact test P-values.

Table S3 Polymorphic positions in the 942-bp segment of mtDNA control region sequenced from common starlings sampled across Australia (haplotypes A–P) and in the UK (haplotypes beginning with ‘UK’).

Table S4 Exact test pairwise P-values (significant results after FDR correction denoted in bold).

Table S5 Neutrality indices (Tajima’s D and Fu’s Fs) with associated P-values for each sampling locality using mtCR data.

Fig. S1 Haplotype proportions of all contemporary Australian starling samples.

Fig. S2 Genetic distance (Slatkin’s linear FST) as a function of geographic distance (km) for pairwise localities Australia-wide (Mantel r2 = 0.001, = 0.356).

Fig. S3 Genetic diversity (θs) found in each sampling locality.

Fig. S4 Significant linear relationship (r2 = 0.79, < 0.000) between allelic richness (R) estimated from microsatellite data (Rollins et al. 2009) and genetic diversity (θs) estimated from mtDNA sequence data.

Appendix S1 Investigation of possible causes of apparent heteroplasmy.

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