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Fig. S1 Representation of fixed landmarks (yellow circles) and sliding semilandmarks (red circles) used for geometric morphometry analyses of (a) wings underside, (b) falces and (c) valvae (lateral view).

Fig. S2 Maximum likelihood tree based on COI sequences of Polyommatus icarus, Polyommatus celina and several other Polyommatus s. str. taxa. Bootstrap supports (>50%) are shown above recovered branches. Grey cases indicate the position of P. icarus and P. celina in the tree. Specimens in bold were differently identified based on COI and ITS2 respectively.

Fig. S3 Bayesian trees based on the analysis of COI haplotypes of Polyommatus icarus and Polyommatus celina. (a) Bayesian tree based on COI haplotypes of P. icarus. (b) Bayesian tree based on COI haplotypes of P. celina. Numbers at nodes indicate Bayesian posterior probabilities (shown if higher than 50%).

Fig. S4 Maximum likelihood tree based on ITS2 sequences of Polyommatus icarus, Polyommatus celina and several other Polyommatus s. str. taxa. Bootstrap supports (>50%) are shown above recovered branches. Grey cases indicate the position of P. icarus and P. celina in the tree. Specimens in bold were differently identified based on COI and ITS2 respectively.

Fig. S5 Maximum likelihood tree based on the combined data set of COI and ITS2. Bootstrap supports and Bayesian posterior probabilities (>50%) are shown above recovered branches. Grey cases indicate the position of P. icarus and P. celina in the tree.

Fig. S6 Discriminant analyses displaying relative positions of specimens belonging to the 16 different areas for (a) all traits, (b) for genitalia PCs and aedeagus length, (c) for wing PCs. Numbered black squares represent group centroids. (d) Relationship between values for falces PCw and forewing centroid size (wing size) in P. celina (white squares) and P. icarus (black squares); symbols represent mean values for each of the 16 areas.

Fig. S7 Median-joining haplotype network inferred for Polyommatus icarus using the program NETWORK 4.6.0.0.

Fig. S8 Median-joining haplotype network inferred for Polyommatus celina using the program NETWORK 4.6.0.0.

Table S1 Specimens of Polyommatus icarus, Polyommatus celina and other Polyommatus s. str. taxa that were analysed in this study. Specimens of P. icarus and P. celina with GenBank sequences used in the analyses are also included in the list. Samples marked in bold represent specimens with discordant mitochondrial and nuclear DNA-based identification

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