Fig. S1 Position of samples in quadrate plots and soil profiles at the study locations.

Fig. S2 Sample numbers and position inside the 20 × 20 and 40 × 40 m quadrates of Site D, and position of samples where ostrich was identified using species-specific primers.

Table S1 Additional sequences of the 16S mammalian barcode region, obtained from tissue samples, or identified by deep sequencing of soil samples of Profile A1 and Site D

Table S2 Nucleotide tags and numbers corresponding to sample names, and accession numbers for the three sequencing experiments uploaded to NCBI SRA

Table S3 The distribution by number of errors, calculated for seven haplotypes identified as Elephantidae (11 598 reads), Elephas (8040 reads), Loxodonta (2897 reads) and Panthera

Table S4 Frequency data obtained from high-throughput sequencing of samples from quadrate plots at Site D–F

Table S5 Frequency data obtained from high-throughput sequencing of samples from Profiles A1 and B2

Table S6 Measurements of cation concentrations [cmolc (+)/kg], total carbon (C %), SOM (mass %) and pH (H2O) of soil samples from the study sites

Table S7 Results for soil fraction analysis on soil samples from soil Profiles A1, B1 and B2

Appendix S1 Materials and methods: Details on sampling locations and study sites, Specificity of the species-specific primers, Extension of reference sequence material, Haplotype identifications, Taxonomic identifications, Internal standard and soil analysis

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