Isolation-driven divergence: speciation in a widespread North American songbird (Aves: Certhiidae)

Authors

  • JOSEPH D. MANTHEY,

    1. Center for the Conservation of Biological Resources, Department of Biology, Black Hills State University, Spearfish, SD 57799, USA
    2. Integrative Genomics Program, Black Hills State University, 1200 University Street Unit #9003, Spearfish, SD 57799-9003, USA
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  • JOHN KLICKA,

    1. Marjorie Barrick Museum of Natural History, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV 89154, USA
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  • GARTH M. SPELLMAN

    1. Center for the Conservation of Biological Resources, Department of Biology, Black Hills State University, Spearfish, SD 57799, USA
    2. Integrative Genomics Program, Black Hills State University, 1200 University Street Unit #9003, Spearfish, SD 57799-9003, USA
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Joseph D. Manthey, Fax: +605 642 6237; E-mail: jdmanthey@gmail.com

Abstract

Lineage, or true ‘species’, trees may differ from gene trees because of stochastic processes in molecular evolution leading to gene-tree heterogeneity. Problems with inferring species trees because of excessive incomplete lineage sorting may be exacerbated in lineages with rapid diversification or recent divergences necessitating the use of multiple loci and individuals. Many recent multilocus studies that investigate divergence times identify lineage splitting to be more recent than single-locus studies, forcing the revision of biogeographic scenarios driving divergence. Here, we use 21 nuclear loci from regional populations to re-evaluate hypotheses identified in an mtDNA phylogeographic study of the Brown Creeper (Certhia americana), as well as identify processes driving divergence. Nuclear phylogeographic analyses identified hierarchical genetic structure, supporting a basal split at approximately 32°N latitude, splitting northern and southern populations, with mixed patterns of genealogical concordance and discordance between data sets within the major lineages. Coalescent-based analyses identify isolation, with little to no gene flow, as the primary driver of divergence between lineages. Recent isolation appears to have caused genetic bottlenecks in populations in the Sierra Madre Oriental and coastal mountain ranges of California, which may be targets for conservation concerns.

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