Fig. S1 (A) The Baskura Peninsula site (Fig. 1C). The shore bluff shows the, for ‘Cape Sabler-type’ sediments, typical thermokarst morphology called ‘baydjarakhs’, i.e. permafrost degradation along ice-wedge polygons. Note person for scale. (B) Laminated silt with a low occurrence of organic remains (Baskura Peninsula). (C) Interbedded silt and fine sand beds, rich in organic remains (Fedorov Islands). (D) Silt-soaked moss peat (Ovrazhny Peninsula). (E) Massive to vaguely laminated silt rich in moss (Cape Sabler).

Fig. S2 Diagram showing results from the DNA, macrofossil and pollen analyses from all samples/localities sorted according to radiocarbon age (calibrated).

Table S1 Lithofacies codes as used in sediment logs.

Table S214C dates from investigated sites.

Appendix S1 Detailed information on the sedimentological and palaeoenvironmental interpretations of the study sites, and results for sedaDNA, macrofossil and pollen analyses.

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